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Ako FDR očarila saudského kráľa a získala prístup USA k rope

Tajné stretnutie za vojny. ...čítaj viac

Únik ropy Exxon Valdez

Únik ropy Exxon Valdez bola ľudská katastrofa, ku ktorej došlo, keď Exxon Valdez, ropný tanker vo vlastníctve Exxon Shipping Company, vylial 24. marca 1989 11 miliónov galónov ropy do Aljašského princa Williama Sounda. Bola to najhoršia ropná škvrna v roku História USA do ...čítaj viac

V Mexickom zálive sa začala rozsiahla ropná škvrna

20. apríla 2010: Explózia a požiar na palube ropnej vrtnej plošiny Deepwater Horizon v Mexickom zálive, približne 50 míľ od pobrežia Louisiany, zabila 11 ľudí a spustila najväčšiu ropnú škvrnu na mori v americkej histórii. Zariadenie bolo vo finálnej fáze ...čítaj viac

Vretenica

10. januára 1901 vybuchol z miesta vŕtania na kopci Spindletop obrovský gejzír ropy, kopec vytvorený podzemným ložiskom soli, ktoré sa nachádza neďaleko Beaumontu v grófstve Jefferson v juhovýchodnom Texase. Dosahuje výšku viac ako 150 stôp a produkuje takmer 100 000 ...čítaj viac

John D. Rockefeller

John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937), zakladateľ spoločnosti Standard Oil Company, sa stal jedným z najbohatších mužov sveta a významným filantropom. Narodený v skromných pomeroch v štáte New York, vstúpil do vtedy mladého ropného priemyslu v roku 1863 investovaním v Clevelande v štáte Ohio. ...čítaj viac

Ropný priemysel

19. storočie bolo obdobím veľkých zmien a rýchlej industrializácie. Železiarsky a oceliarsky priemysel priniesol nové stavebné materiály, železnice krajinu spojili a objavenie ropy poskytlo nový zdroj paliva. Objav gejzíru Spindletop v roku 1901 ...čítaj viac

Vzácne Bugatti nájdené v britskej garáži

Dňa 2. januára 2009 médiá informovali, že v garáži britského lekára bol nájdený vzácny nereštaurovaný Bugatti Type 57S Atalante Coupe z roku 1937. O mesiac neskôr, 7. februára, sa auto predalo na parížskej aukcii za zhruba 4,4 milióna dolárov. Čierne dvojsedadlo, jedno z iba 17 57S ...čítaj viac

Gusher signalizuje začiatok amerického ropného priemyslu

10. januára 1901 vŕtací vrt na kopci Spindletop blízko Beaumontu v Texase produkuje obrovské množstvo ropy, ktorá pokrýva krajinu stovkami stôp a signalizuje nástup amerického ropného priemyslu. Gejzír bol objavený v hĺbke viac ako 1 000 stôp, ...čítaj viac

V Severnom mori sa topia ropní robotníci

Plávajúci byt pre ropných robotníkov v Severnom mori sa zrútil a 30. marca 1980 zabil 123 ľudí. Na platforme Alexandra Kiellanda bolo umiestnených 208 mužov, ktorí pracovali na neďalekej ropnej plošine Edda v poli Ekofisk, 235 míľ východne od škótskeho Dundee. Väčšina ropy Phillips ...čítaj viac

Odsúdenie kapitána Exxona Valdeza je zrušené

Odvolací súd na Aljaške zrušil odsúdenie Josepha Hazelwooda, bývalého kapitána ropného tankera Exxona Valdeza. Hazelwood, ktorý bol uznaný vinným z nedbanlivosti za svoju úlohu pri rozsiahlej ropnej škvrne v Prince William Sound v roku 1989, úspešne tvrdil, že bol ...čítaj viac


Olej - HISTÓRIA

Vzhľadom na jeho púštny stav bolo v Líbyi veľa vrtných aktivít dlho predtým, ako existovalo akékoľvek podozrenie, že existuje ropa. Hľadanie vody zahŕňalo vŕtanie veľmi hlbokých studní. Až do roku 1915 talianskych vrtov hlbokých studní sa niekedy nachádzal zemný plyn. To bolo zaujímavé, ale zemný plyn v tej dobe nebol hlavnou komoditou. V USA bol obťažovaný zemný plyn z olejov (spálený).

V roku 1935 profesor z Milánskej univerzity, ktorý mal na starosti program vŕtania studní, ukázal, že je potrebné sledovať ropu. Pravdepodobne to bolo skôr z akademického záujmu než z vážneho záujmu o nájdenie významného ekonomického zdroja. O niekoľko rokov neskôr bola ropa zistená vo vodnej studni vyvŕtanej blízko Tripolisu.

Tento nález stačil na vyvolanie geologického prieskumu v Tripolitánii. V jednej z vrtov bola hľadaná ropa, ale žiadna sa nenašla. Napriek tomu bol v roku 1940 zahájený program prieskumu, ale dostupné vybavenie nebolo dostatočné na zvládnutie náročných podmienok Saharskej púšte. Krátko nato prišla do Líbye vojna a všetky prieskumy sa zastavili.

Bezprostredne po 2. svetovej vojne bolo politické postavenie Líbye, ktorú ovládalo Taliansko, neisté. Neexistoval žiadny štát, ktorý by mohol zaručiť spoločnostiam skúmajúcim ropu práva na to, čo môžu nájsť. Preto sa nevykonával žiadny prieskum, kým sa Líbya v roku 1951 nestala nezávislým kráľovstvom. Nové kráľovstvo vyvinulo zákon o nerastných právach prostredníctvom konzultácií s medzinárodnými ropnými spoločnosťami. V roku 1953 Líbya udelila povolenia na ťažbu jedenástim ropným spoločnostiam. Tieto spoločnosti vykonali geologické prieskumy. V roku 1955 bol v púštnych podmienkach hneď za hranicou v Alžírsku úspešne vyvŕtaný ropný vrt.

Lídijskí vodcovia boli rozhodnutí ponechať si trh s prieskumnými povoleniami v Líbyi, a nie udeľovať koncesie jednej spoločnosti alebo konzorciu niekoľkých spoločností. Navyše, aj keď by jednej spoločnosti bola udelená koncesia v konkrétnej oblasti, musela by sa po piatich rokoch vzdať jednej štvrtiny koncesie. To malo umožniť vláde poskytnúť toto územie novej spoločnosti v nádeji, že nová spoločnosť môže uspieť tam, kde iná zlyhala.

Podmienkou bolo, že ropné spoločnosti budú musieť zaplatiť 12,5 percenta licenčných poplatkov zo svojich tržieb a 50 percentnú daň zo zisku. Autorské poplatky a ostatné prevádzkové náklady boli samozrejme odpočítateľné pri výpočte ziskov spoločnosti.

Ropné spoločnosti mali veľký záujem o rozvoj zdrojov ropy v Líbyi, pretože sa nachádzala v Stredozemnom mori. Ich zdroje z Iránu boli obmedzené tamojšou politickou krízou v rokoch 1951 až 1954. Suezská kríza v rokoch 1956-57 mala za následok zatvorenie Suezského prieplavu. Všetka ropa z východu na Suez musela byť dovezená okolo južného cípu Afriky s veľkými dodatočnými nákladmi. Okrem toho sa predpokladalo, že Líbya má stabilnú prozápadnú vládu.

Do roku 1957 pôsobilo v Líbyi asi tucet spoločností na približne šesťdesiatich rôznych ústupkoch. Medzi spoločnosti, ktoré tam pôsobili, patrilo sedem veľkých spoločností a francúzsky para-statal Compagnie Fran & ccedilaaise des P & eacutetroles. Nechýbalo ani Oasis, konzorcium troch spoločností nových v medzinárodnom prieskume ropy, Amerada Hess, Conoco a Marathon. Bola tu aj ropná spoločnosť Bunker Hunt, syna amerického ropného magnáta H.L.Hunt.

V roku 1957 sa Esso rozhodol vŕtať v oblasti za hranicou, odkiaľ bol privezený alžírsky ropný vrt. Vrtalo tri studne a jedna z nich bola úspešná. Bol privezený v januári 1958 s prietokom 500 barelov denne. Vzhľadom na náklady na vŕtanie to nebolo veľa.

V roku 1959 Esso vŕtala v oblasti Siritica, ktorá je severnou centrálnou časťou krajiny. Prinieslo to studňu tečúcu 17 500 sudmi denne. Nasledovala ďalšia dobre tečúca ropa 15 000 barelov denne. Neskôr v roku 1959 boli dovezené ďalšie ropné vrty v Siritici. V roku 1959 bolo objavených šesť veľkých ropných polí v Líbyi. Vedúcimi predstaviteľmi v tejto oblasti boli Esso a Oasis.


Energetické zdroje

Wilmingtonské ropné pole je tretie najväčšie pole v susedných USA s konečným zhodnotením odhadovaným na tri miliardy barelov ropy. Pole sa nachádza na 13 míľ dlhej a 3 míle širokej Wilmingtonskej antikline, ktorá siaha od pobrežia San Pedro po pobrežnú pláž Seal a je vertikálne rozdelená chybami a vytvára oddelené produkujúce entity nazývané poruchové bloky. Ropa sa ťaží z piatich hlavných pieskových intervalov v hĺbkach od 2 000 stôp do 11 000 stôp, kde sa podarilo získať späť viac ako dve a pol miliardy barelov ropy. Ropa a plyn sa získavajú prostredníctvom primárnej výroby, druhotných vodných záplav a parných záplav. Do dnešného dňa bolo vyvŕtaných 6 150 studní.

Oblasti pôsobenia ropy

Ropné operácie

V ropnom poli Wilmington, ktoré zahŕňa vlastnosti prílivových a horských oblastí, DOP dohliada na prácu dvoch súkromných dodávateľov a ich 300 zamestnancov. Spoločnosť na výrobu ropy Tidelands je poľným dodávateľom pre západný Wilmington. Od roku 1932 bolo vyvŕtaných viac ako 3 400 studní na pevnine. V päťdesiatych a šesťdesiatych rokoch minulého storočia boli zahájené záplavy vody s cieľom zvýšiť obnovu a obmedziť pokles.

California Resources Corporation (CRC) je poľným dodávateľom jednotky Long Beach Unit (LBU), východnej pobrežnej časti Wilmingtonského poľa. Spoločnosť THUMS Long Beach (pomenovaný pre pôvodných dodávateľov v teréne: Texaco, Humble, Union, Mobil a Shell) je zástupcom spoločnosti CRC. V roku 1964 boli postavené štyri umelo vytvorené ostrovy pomenované podľa astronautov, ktorí prišli o život počas prvých rokov amerického prieskumu vesmíru (Grissom, White, Chaffee a Freeman). Pier J bol rozšírený do Long Beach Harbor na rozvoj LBU. Bolo vyvŕtaných približne 1 450 vrtov. Jednotka Long Beach Unit začala pri spustení zaplavovať vodu, aby zabránila poklesu. Dnes je produkcia ropy Wilmington Field približne 46 000 barelov denne z 1 550 aktívnych vrtov.

Schéma ostrova

Ostrov Grissom

V VrchovinyMesto je účastníkom licenčných poplatkov aj vlastníkom pracujúceho záujmu o svoje nehnuteľnosti v susedstve Signal Hill a ďalších nehnuteľností v celom meste. Jednotky Signal Hill West (SHWU) a Signal Hill East (SHEU) sú súčasťou ropného poľa Long Beach, ktoré sa nachádza v Long Beach aj v Signal Hill. Povrchová antiklinálna štruktúra je viditeľná na míle ďaleko a je miestnym orientačným bodom vedľa letiska Long Beach. Spoločnosť Signal Hill Petroleum Inc. je v súčasnej dobe prevádzkovateľom záznamu. Rekreačný park sa nachádza na severnej strane 7. ulice. Spoločnosť Breitburn Energy Company LLC, nezávislá ropná spoločnosť so sídlom v Los Angeles, teraz prevádzkuje celkom 7 vrtov. City Wasem Community Lease sa nachádza v blízkosti Marine Stadium, čo je rozšírenie ropného poľa Seal Beach. Bazén ropy v morskej oblasti bol objavený a vyvinutý v roku 1979 spoločnosťou Elliot & amp Ten Eyck (ET). V nájme je v súčasnosti 16 aktívnych studní.


Stojí moja stará ropná zásoba za niečo?

Podporte prosím tento výskum! Pôvodný výskum a údržba sprievodného fóra American Oil & amp Gas Historical Society závisí od vašej individuálnej finančnej podpory. AOGHS nie je prepojený so žiadnou ropnou spoločnosťou, advokátskymi skupinami ani lobistickými organizáciami priemyslu.

Viněta certifikátu o zásobách ropy je často dôležitou súčasťou jej hodnoty pre skriptofilnosť - nákup a predaj certifikátov ako zberateľských predmetov potom, čo ako cenný papier nemajú žiadnu uplatniteľnú hodnotu.

História ropnej spoločnosti

Hoci je história amerického prieskumu, výroby a prepravy ropy v USA často kontroverzná, mala by byť zachovaná. Od petroleja pre žiarovky, benzínu pre automobily a plastových polymérov pre každodenné potreby ponúka sociálna, ekonomická a technologická história priemyslu kontext pre pochopenie moderných diskusií o energii.

V zhone v tlači akciových certifikátov počas ropných boomov sa nové spoločnosti často rozhodli tlačiť certifikáty pomocou diaľničnej známky!

Zberatelia našli prekvapivo veľa príkladov, kde rýchlo sa rozvíjajúce prieskumné spoločnosti vybrali presne rovnakú scénu ropných polí pre akciové certifikáty. Mohlo by to ušetriť čas a peniaze tým, že by sme dnes zvolili spoločnú známku, ktorá sa nachádza na akciách centralizovanej ropnej a zosilňovacej plynárenskej spoločnosti Double Standard Oil & amp Gas Company, Evangeline Oil Company, Texas Production Company, Tulsa, produkujúca a rafinačná spoločnosť, Hecla-Wyoming Oil Company, Oil Prospectors Inc., Craven Oil & amp. Rafinácia Buck Run Oil a rafinácia Home Oil & amp; Gas Hog Creek Carruth Company Buffalo-Texas Oil Company a Champion Oil Company.

Môžete mi povedať niečo o tejto starej ropnej spoločnosti (zadarmo)? Jeho akciový certifikát som našiel v podkroví. Som bohatý? Pravdepodobne nie. Ako je uvedené v nižšie uvedených spoločnostiach, od 50. rokov 19. storočia si cykly boomu a krachu v americkom ropnom priemysle vyžiadali mnoho obetí. Príklad jedného, ​​ktorý sa skutočne dostal na súdy, nájdete v dokumente Nie je milionár zo starej ropy.

Amerika je prvou ropnou spoločnosťou a#8211 spoločnosť Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company v New Yorku zorganizovala v roku 1855.

Žiaľ, táto malá historická spoločnosť nemôže žiadostiam vyhovieť zadarmo výskum týkajúci sa histórie jednotlivých spoločností a potenciálnej hodnoty akciových certifikátov. Ako ste možno zistili, finančný výskum je náročný a časovo náročný. Ak máte šťastie, návštevník týchto webových stránok alebo dobrovoľník spoločnosti mohol uverejniť užitočné informácie.

Ak tu váš certifikát nie je uvedený a chcete sa podeliť o ďalšie skúsenosti z výskumu, ste vyzvaní, aby ste aktuálne odoslali svoj dotaz Fórum otázok a odpovedí na skladový certifikát.

Nasleduje výskum, ktorý predložil popredný dobrovoľník Americkej historickej spoločnosti pre ropu a plyn. Prezentované dejiny spoločnosti často rozprávajú fascinujúce príbehy – a sú exkluzívne článkov fóra o skladovom certifikáte Q & ampA aj na tomto webe. Vráťte sa sem a získajte ďalšie informácie o týchto vzácnych dejinách.

Najnovší výskum a#8211 aktualizované v máji 2021

Badger Oil & amp Gas Company*
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Barrington Oil Company
Spoločnosť Beaumont Confederated Oil & amp Pipe Line Company
Veľká indická spoločnosť pre rozvoj ropy a zosilňovačov
Big Six Oil Company*
Black Gold Petroleum Company*
Black Hills Petroleum Company
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Blue Ridge Natural Gas & amp Oil Corporation*
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Busseyville Oil & amp Gas*
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D.M. Simon Oil & amp Gas Company*
Texaská spoločnosť Dallas Oil Company*
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Desoto Oil Company*
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* Prebieha výskum

Fairchild Petroleum*
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Päťdesiatsedem ropných spoločností*
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* Prebieha výskum

Spoločnosť Garfield na spracovanie ropy a zosilňovača*
Spoločnosť Gate City-Wyoming Oil & amp Gas Company*
Gatex Oil Company*
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Plynárenská, ropná a developerská spoločnosť
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General Resources Corporation*
Gin Site Oil Company*
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Great Basin Oil Company*
Veľké cenné papiere z ropnej nádrže*
Veľká južná asociácia rafinácie ropy a zosilňovačov*
Veľká juhozápadná ropná spoločnosť*
Skvelé oleje zo sladkej trávy*
Great Western Oil & amp Gas Company
Spoločnosť Greater Great Falls Oil Company*
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Spoločnosť Hamilton Oil & amp Gas Company*
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Havana Oil Company
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Spoločnosť Holiday Oil & amp Gas Gas*
Holly Oil Company
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Spoločnosť Home Oil & amp Development Company
Home Oil Company*
Homestead Oil Company
Konská obuvnícka spoločnosť zaoberajúca sa štyrmi listami a ťažbou oleja*
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Spoločnosť Humble Oil Ridge*
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Imperial Drilling Company*
Indická spoločnosť pre ropný a plynárenský priemysel*
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Interkontinentná ropa*
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* Prebieha výskum

Spoločnosť Kantexo Oil & amp Gas Gas*
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La Lomita Oil Syndicate*
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Love Petroleum Company*
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Ako táto najpredávanejšia kniha z päťdesiatych rokov minulého storočia súvisí s neopatrnými investormi a mužmi za tienistou prieskumnou spoločnosťou? Prečítajte si Oil Prospectors, Inc.

Mahala Oil & amp Gas Company*
Mary Owens Oil Company*
McKeesport Gas Company
McTon Oil Company*
Meridian Petroleum Company
Mexická spoločnosť Oil & amp Coal Company*
Spoločnosť Mid-Central Oil & amp Minerals Company*
Middle States Oil Corporation
Midfields Oil Company
Mid-Texas Petroleum Company*
Minnesota-Western Oil Company
Minnesota Victoria Oil Company*
Milwaukee Electra Oil Development Company*
Mississippi Oil Company*
Spoločnosť Monarch Vacuum Petroleum Company*
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Montana-Kanadská ropná spoločnosť*
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Morris-Van Keuren Oil and Gas Syndicate
Motex Oil Company*
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Olejová spoločnosť Multiple Dome*
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Severozápadná ropa*
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Októbrová ropná spoločnosť*
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Tichomorská zem a ropa*
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Pennsylvania Oil & amp Development Company
Spoločnosť konsolidujúca ropu*
Americká ropná produkčná spoločnosť*
Spoločnosť Phenix Oil and Gas Company*
Philippine Oil Development Company*
Phoenix Oil Company*
Pine Valley Oil Company*
Spoločnosť Pioneer Oil & amp Gas Company*
Pittsburgh-Youngstown Oil & amp Gas Company*
Spoločnosť Plateau Oil & amp Gas Gas*
Plateau Petroleums Limited*
Pongratz Petroleum Company*
Poštoví zamestnanci Oil & amp Gas Company*
Power Petroleum Trust Estate*
Powers Manufacturing Company*
Olejová spoločnosť Prescott-Peoria*
Price River Petroleum Company
Výrobcovia a rafinérie Corporation
Spoločnosť Provident Oil & amp Refining Company*
Spoločnosť Prudential Oil and Rafining Company
Spoločnosť surovej ropy Puente
Puente Oil Company
* Prebieha výskum

Spoločnosť Sable Oil & amp Gas Gas*
Spoločnosť St. Elco Oil & amp Gas Company*
St. Martins Oil & amp Gas Company*
Sammies Oil Corporation (Choate Oil)
San Jacinto River Oil Company*
Spoločnosť San Mateo pre ropu a rafinériu*
Spoločnosť Sanger Oil & amp. Refining Company
Santa Fe Dome Oil Company
Santa Fe Western Gas & amp Uranium Corporation*
Sawyer Petroleum Company
Sawyer-Adecor International
Scofield, Shurmer a amp Teagle*
Spoločnosť Seaboard Oil & amp Gas Gas
Seattle Toledo Oil Company*
Spoločnosť Security Oil*
Syndikát bezpečnostného oleja č. 2*
Olejová spoločnosť Sen-Burk*
Seven States Oil Company*
Benzínová spoločnosť Sherman*
Kožená ropná spoločnosť
Shoshone Oil Company
Signálna ropná a plynárenská spoločnosť*
Solar Oil Corporation*
Sound Cities Gas & amp Oil Company
Sour Lake Texas Oil Company*
Southeastern Limited Oil Company*
Southern Montana Oil Company*
Spoločnosť Southern Rose Oil & amp Gas Company
Spoločnosť Southern States Drilling Company*
Southern States Oil Company*
Corporation Southwest Oil Corporation*
Spoločnosť Southwestern Oil Development Company
Spoločnosť Southwestern Petroleum & amp Pipe Line*
Spoločnosť Spear Oil
Square Deal Oil Company*
Štandardná konsolidovaná spoločnosť Oil & amp Land Company*
Štandardná prieskumná spoločnosť*
Spoločnosť Star Oil
Spoločnosť Staveless Barrel & amp Tank Company
Steelman Realty Gas & amp Oil Company
Sterling Oil Company, Oklahoma*
Spoločnosť Studebaker Oil & amp Refining Company*
Spoločnosť na výrobu síry*
Sunset Pacific Oil Company
Spoločnosť Sunshine State Oil & amp Refining Company
Sure Oil Company*
Syndicate Oil Corporation of America*
* Prebieha výskum

Spoločnosť Tapo Oil*
Spoločnosť Texas-Bunger Oil and Rafining Company*
Texas-Rotan Oil Company*
Texasko-washingtonská ropná spoločnosť*
Konsolidovaná ropná spoločnosť Texas Control*
Texaská ropná spoločnosť*
Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation
Spoločnosť Texas Independent Pipe Line*
Spoločnosť Texas Oil & amp Rafinéria
Spoločnosť Texas Oil, Gas & amp Mineral Products Company*
Spoločnosť Texas Oil Products Company
Texas Producers Oil Company*
Texaská produkčná spoločnosť
Texas United Oil Company
Ropná spoločnosť 1919*
Tideland Oil & amp Gas Corporation*
Toltec Oil Company*
Trans-World Oil Company
Spoločnosť Treasure State Oil & amp Gas Company
Triangle Petroleum Company*
Trojštátna vrtná spoločnosť*
Spoločnosť vyrábajúca a zdokonaľujúca Tulsa
Spoločnosť ropného a plynárenského priemyslu dvadsiateho storočia*
Spoločnosť Twentymile Oil & amp Gas Gas*
* Prebieha výskum

Uncle Sam Oil Company*
Union Oil & amp Gas Company*
Spoločnosť Union Oil, Gas & amp Refining Company*
United Cuban Oil Inc.
United Plains Oil Company*
United Southern Oil Company*
Americká ropná a plynárenská spoločnosť
United Sulphur & amp Oil Company*
United Texas Petroleum Company*
Urán-ropná spoločnosť*
U.S.A. Oil Company*
Ute Oil Company a#8211 Pioneer z ropných bridlíc
* Prebieha výskum

Spoločnosť Ventura Oil Development*
Vernon Winner Oil Company*
Vista Petroleum*
Dobrovoľnícka ropná spoločnosť*
* Prebieha výskum

Spoločnosť Wallace Oil CompanyWarren Oil & amp Uranium Mining Company*
Washington-Montana Oil Company*
Wellington Oil Company
Wellmington Oil Corporation*
Spoločnosť West Coast Pipeline Company
Western Giant Oil Company*
Western Natural Gas Company*
Western Nebraska Oil Company*
Western States Oil Company*
Spoločnosť Wichita Oil & amp Gas Gas
Winona Oil Corporation
Spoločnosť Wolf Butte Oil & amp Gas Company*
Americká federálna ropná spoločnosť
Národná spoločnosť pre rozvoj ropy a zosilňovačov pre ženy
Svetová ropná spoločnosť
Wyoming, hlavná rafinérska spoločnosť*
Wyomingská konsolidovaná ropná spoločnosť*
Wyoming-Dakota Oil Company
Spoločnosť Wyoming Oil & amp Coal Company*
Spoločnosť Wyoming Peerless Oil Company
Spoločnosť Wyoming Prairie Oil & amp Gas Company
Druhá štandardná ropná spoločnosť vo Wyomingu*
* Prebieha výskum


Vykurovací olej - história

Asi v roku 1847 obyvateľ Pittsburghu Samuel Keir vymyslel spôsob, ako destilovať ropu do žiarovky, ktorú nazýval „uhlíkový olej“. Vynález petrolejovej lampy v polovici roku 1850 viedol k založeniu prvej americkej ropnej spoločnosti Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company. Americký ropný priemysel sa narodil neďaleko Titusville na severozápade Pensylvánie v roku 1859. Tam Edwin L. Drake vyvŕtal prvý komerčne úspešný ropný vrt v USA. Prvou významnou ropnou spoločnosťou však bola spoločnosť Standard Oil Company, ktorú založil John D. Rockefeller v roku 1870. Spoločnosť Standard Oil vybudovala svoju prvú ropnú rafinériu v Pensylvánii, neskôr svoje rozsiahle prevádzky rozšírila po celej krajine.

Od prvého zavedenia ropy ako iluminátora a jej následnej hojnosti a následnej lacnosti boli urobené rôzne atentáty na použitie ako palivo ako náhrada uhlia, najmä na výrobu pary. Výhody aj nevýhody boli ľahko pochopiteľné. Medzi prvými bol menší priestor, ktorý zaberá, s menšou hmotnosťou a ľahkosťou manipulácie, bez roštov, bez popola, bez hrabania atď. Namiesto hasičov potrebných na zvládnutie pevných hrudiek uhlia sledujte jeho spaľovanie a udržiavať pec v správnom stave hrabaním ohňa, čistením popolnice atď., spaľovanie kvapalného paliva, ako je ropa, sa dá jednoducho riadiť obmenou dodávky správnymi uzatváracími kohútikmi, jednoducho stačí občasné pozorovanie a regulácia ponuky, čím sa všetky dobré vynálezy priblížia k veľkému desideratu: k zrušeniu všetkej ťažkej mechanickej práce ľuďmi, ktorým všetkým bohatá príroda nedala také množstvo mozgov, nič, byť premrhaný pri práci, ktorú môžu vykonávať aj zvieratá alebo stroje bez mozgu, ak nie lepšie.

Nevýhody univerzálneho využívania ropy ako paliva boli v prvom rade problémy a práca spojená s jej prepravou a skladovaním, zatiaľ čo tuhé uhlie je možné nakladať do otvorených automobilov a rozsypávať na haldy, kvapalný olej sa musí skladovať a prepravovať v vzduchotesné plavidlá, s ktorými sú spojené oveľa vyššie náklady a investície kapitálu, než je tomu pri preprave a skladovaní uhlia. Ďalšou nevýhodou je jeho veľká horľavosť a následné nebezpečenstvo spojené s jeho skladovaním v množstve, zatiaľ čo uhlie je v tomto ohľade úplne bezpečné, skutočne také bezpečné, že na neho možno bezpečne hodiť horiacu zápalku alebo dokonca horiacu tyčinku alebo kus dreva kopa uhlia a zhorí bez toho, aby sa uhlie zapálilo, zatiaľ čo ropa a dokonca niekedy aj jej pary sú také horľavé, že je nebezpečné priblížiť sa k akémukoľvek plameňu, tieto pary zmiešané so vzduchom vytvárajú výbušnú zmes. Hneď ako sa voda vznieti, petroieum nezhasne, pretože na ňom pláva.

Prvý experiment sa uskutočnil okolo roku 1864 v jednom z námorných yardov USA v Brooklyne alebo Pidladelphii, kde inžinier prišiel s myšlienkou umiestniť pod parný kotol veľké množstvo petrolejových lámp. Pozoroval veľké teplo vyžarované petrolejovou lampou a usúdil, že keby bol ich počet dostatočne veľký na to, aby zaplnil celú horáreň kotlovej pece, zvyšovali by paru. Prehliadol skutočnosť, že veľké teplo produkované takou lampou ďaleko nesahuje ďaleko za komín a že na zvýšenie pary musí byť pod kotlom a cez dymovody vedený dlhý prúd horiacich alebo ohrievaných plynov. dostatočná hmotnosť uhlia alebo iného vhodného materiálu musí byť v stave vznietenia a pri spaľovaní za pomoci prievanu vzniká dlhý prúd tepla, ktorý sa sám rozptýli tam, kde je to potrebné, zatiaľ čo žiarovky iba mierne zohrievajú miesto, pod ktorým sa nachádzajú priamo umiestnené. Lepším nápadom bolo premietať na kusy tehál nepretržitý sprej ropy a nechať ich zapáliť a prejsť medzi nimi výbuch. Skúšalo sa to, ale s pochybným úspechom.

Ďalší pokus bol v Batérii v New Yorku v roku 1865. Vynálezca spálil sprej ropy, ktorý vychádzal z perforovaných rúr, pričom spaľovaniu pomáhali dva výboje, jeden séria malých vzduchových prúdov a jeden séria prehriatych parných rázov. . Toto fungovalo oveľa lepšie, pretože bolo schopné poháňať plamene cez spiatočky. Od tej doby bolo vykonaných niekoľko pokusov, ale väčšina z nich akceptovala rovnaký jemný rozstrek ropy a výbuch vzduchu a prehriatej pary. Čoskoro sa však zistilo, že parný ráz, aj keď pomáhal atomizovať ropu (to znamená, že silne pomáhal rozdeliť prúd na nespočetné malé kvapky ako prach), tiež znižoval teplotu, ak nebol veľmi prehriaty. Skutočne taký vysoký, že pri kontakte s olejom vyprchal. Tiež sa zistilo, že časové množstvo vzduchu potrebné na dokonalé spaľovanie bolo obrovské, nie menej ako 50 objemov vzduchu na 1 objem ropných pár. Ale to nie je žiadny objekt, pretože vzduch nič nestojí.

Pokiaľ ide o metalurgiu, problém bol celkom dobre vyriešený, leštený plech a oceľ boli úspešne a ekonomicky vyrobené pomocou ropy ako paliva, zatiaľ čo pre ostatné metalurgické operácie by sa to zdalo jasné, ale chcel som dobrý parný kotol. pec určená na použitie ropy ako paliva. Pokusom o zlepšenie uvedených spôsobov sa zistilo, že ropu je možné s veľkou výhodou použiť namiesto uhlia na výrobu železa, ocele, skla atď., A že aj keď to stojí 10 dolárov za barel a uhlie 5 dolárov na tonu bola výhoda celkom na strane 50 % ropy, zatiaľ čo v parných kotloch sa 1 libra oleja odparí takmer 15, 16 libier alebo viac vody. Tento veľmi priaznivý výsledok je nepochybný vzhľadom na skutočnosť, že spaľovanie uhlia je prirodzene a nevyhnutne nehospodárnejšie, zatiaľ čo kvapalné palivo je možné spaľovať s oveľa vyššou hospodárnosťou za predpokladu, že bola navrhnutá iba správna metóda.

Pokiaľ ide o ostatné konkurenčné metódy, koncom roku 1878 sa jeden nachádzal na americkom námornom dvore v Brooklyne a ukázal, že vynález je strašne nevyrovnaný, čo dokazujú nepraktické a hrubé myšlienky, na ktorých bol založený. V roku 1880 bolo umenie spaľovania ropy ako paliva, aby sa získalo maximum dostupného tepla, stále v plienkach.

V roku 1882 jeden pozorovateľ tvrdil, že Rusi boli v použití ropy ako paliva výrazne pred Amerikou. Úspešne ho použili v niektorých železniciach na pohon lokomotív, pričom na tento účel použili surový benzín, ktorý pochádza zo studní. Väčšinu času na parníkoch Kaspické more používalo kvapalné palivo, ktoré bolo oveľa lacnejšie ako uhlie. Spotrebovalo sa to so vstrekovačmi a spaľovanie bolo regulované s najväčšou ľahkosťou. Pri kvapalnom palive sa požadovalo niekoľko výhod. Pece vydržia dlhšie, pretože neobsahujú síru, nie sú tam žiadne škváry, dym alebo iskry. Práca obslužných pracovníkov je výrazne zjednodušená a vyhrievací účinok paliva je oveľa väčší ako pri dreve alebo uhlí.

Talianske námorníctvo viedlo v experimentovaní s ropou od roku 1890 a v roku 1900 väčšina jeho torpédových lodí spaľovala olej. Začiatkom 90. rokov 19. storočia bolo zrejmé, že námorné mysle v otázke odolnosti voči uhliu všade tvrdnú. V roku 1893 niektorí považovali príchod kvapalného paliva za blízko a keďže do lodí možno čerpať palivo (admirál PH Colomb z námorníctva Royaal tvrdil, že toto sloveso razil) na mori s kvapalným palivom, keď by to nebolo možné uhlie, urýchlenie tohto príchodu bolo vecou, ​​s ktorou sa dalo počítať. With coal, the experience of such ships as the HMS Amphion, with a nominal extreme speed of 17 knots and a nominal coal endurance of 11,000 miles at 10 knots, on a displacement of 4,300 tons, appeared to give more satisfaction to the naval mind as a combination than the HMS Blenheim's 21.6-knot speed with 15,000 miles coal-endurance on a displacement of 9,000 tons. An Amphion would not be justified in running away from a Blenheim, so that the extra speed was not so far called for and while the nominal 4,000 miles greater coal-endurance may be an advantage, it would seem to be much more than balanced by the displacement of the Blenheim. While, therefore, great stress must be laid on coal-endurance so long as coal is the fuel, it may be easy to overdo it in sacrificing other elements.

Oil offered many benefits compared to coal. With twice the thermal content of coal, boilers could be smaller and ships could travel further at greater speed. Oil burned with less smoke, so the location of the fleet would not be so readily compromised. Oil could be stored in tanks anywhere on the ship, allowing more efficient designs. Oil could be transferred through pipes without reliance on stokers, reducing manning. Refueling at sea was feasible, which provided greater operational flexibility. When coal fired boilers are compared with oil fired ones, the biggest differences exist in the combustion equipment. As oil can be combusted in burners of rather simple design, extensive equipment is needed in combustion of coal. In the rest of the boiler, however, there are only a few minor differences in design between boilers fired with solid fuels and those fired with oil. One major difference is that generally more combustion air is needed with solid fuels than with oil, which leads to bigger amounts of flue gases and also to a bigger boiler volume. To turn it the other way round, with a given boiler a bigger output is obtained by oil firing than by coal firing, presuming that combustion of both is possible. The US Navy had conducted significant experiments with oil as fuel almost continuously after 1864. George Wallace Melville, a graduate of Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute, worked in the engineering field until July 1861, when he joined the Navy in the rank of Third Assistant Engineer. In August 1887, President Grover Cleveland appointed Commodore Melville as the Navy's First Chief of the Bureau of Steam Engineering. He rapidly realized the urgent need for the establishment of a test and evaluation station where naval machinery and components could undergo examination and trial for reliability before being placed aboard Navy ships. Submitting a Congressional request for funds to establish an experiment station and test laboratory, Melville's arguments finally convinced Congress to authorize a modest $400,000 for the buildings and equipment which became the US Naval Engineering Experiment Station when it was completed in 1908.

During his administration of over 16 years, Melville superintended the design of 120 ships of the "New Navy" and introduced such widely acclaimed innovations as the water tube boiler, vertical engines, and the repair ship. Promoted to Rear Admiral (RADM) in 1899, Melville was appointed Engineer in Chief of the Navy in 1900. Melville worked to create an oil-burning fleet.

The mixed-firing method of spraying oil on coal was routine by the early 1900s. By 1900 natural gas still provided a significant amount of illumination and some heating. Coal and fuel oil provided most of the energy for heating of homes and offices in cities. Wood was still the dominant source of heat energy in rural areas.

The Royal Navy laid down [Dec 05], built [Dec 05-Oct 06], and commissioned [Dec 06] the first all big-gun battleship, HMS Dreadnought, which revolutionized naval architecture (in spite of the fact that the US Navy already had the USS South Carolina class approved in 1905, they were not laid down until December 1906, hence, the failure to complete in a timely manner gave Dreadnought the honors). This opened up a frantic naval construction race between all of the great naval powers, since all of their ships were now obsolete. HMS Dreadnought mounted 10x12-inch naval rifles in five dual barbettes, three on the center line and one on each side of the forward structure, giving her an 8-gun broadside she turned 21-knots max. with a radius of operations of 6600 miles at 10 kts and 5000 at 19 kts her power plant was a hybrid in as much as she burned both coal and oil. The transition by the Royal Navy from coal to oil was stimulated by First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill and Admiral Sir John (Jacky) Fisher. The Royal Navy had already adopted oil for submarines and destroyers, as had the American Navy. When Churchill went to Whitehall in 1911, coal was still the primary source of power for naval vessels. Ordered in 1912 to outmaneuver and cross the T of the German fleet, the Queen Elizabeth-class battleships were built to burn oil only. Once this decision was made, it followed that the rest of the Royal Navy would turn to oil. This technological change was a great success, and every navy soon switched to oil. An extensive investigation of petroleum as fuel by the Liquid Fuel Board in 1902-03 proved tremendously important to the entire naval and commercial world. The Board recommended using oil as a standalone fuel in 1904. The first oil-burning American destroyer, USS Paulding, was commissioned in 1910. The BB-34 New York Class battleships, laid down in 1911, were the first US Navy battleships armed with 14-inch guns, and the last to be built with more than four main battery turrets, intermediate weight side armor and coal-fired boilers. The BB-36 Nevada Class were the last US Navy battleships to have reciprocating engines, and the last to have two propellers. At the same time they were the first of the ships to carry fourteen-inch guns, and the US Navy's first to have oil as their primary fuel. The US Navy began to establish fuel oil depots in 1910 to supply the needs of submarines and destroyers. Its first fuel oil facilities were located on the East Coast at Key West, Charleston, Norfolk, and Narragansett Bay.


Oil is a natural resource formed by the decay of organic matter over millions of years, and like many other natural resources, it can only be extracted from reserves where it already exists. The only difference between oil and every other natural resource is that oil is well and truly the lifeblood of the global economy.

The world derives over a third of its total energy production from oil, more than any other source by far. As a result, the countries that control the world’s oil reserves often have disproportionate geopolitical and economic power.

According to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2020, 14 countries make up 93.5% of the proven oil reserves globally. The countries on this list span five continents and control anywhere from 25.2 billion barrels of oil to 304 billion barrels of oil.


Oil and Gas Industry in Alabama

Mobile Bay Gas Platforms Alabama is among the top 17 producers of oil and among the top 16 producers of natural gas in the United States. Oil and gas are found in many counties as well as in Mobile Bay. The state has developed some of the most stringent environmental regulations regarding drilling in its offshore waters. Alabama's oil production has steadily increased from an average of just over five million barrels in 2009 to nine million barrels in 2015. Alabama's natural gas production has steadily declined since 2005 but has leveled since 2012 at about 200 billion cubic feet per year. In 2015, the state the oil and gas industry contributed $11.3 billion to the Alabama economy, which was 6.4% of the state's GDP. Alabama Oil and Gas Regions Oil in Alabama generally occurs in the state's two sedimentary basins, the Interior Salt Basin in the southwest and the Black Warrior Basin in the northwest, both of which extend westward into Mississippi. Geologists use the term "basin" to describe a broad area where layered sedimentary rocks sag thousands of feet downward into a "bowl" shape, although there is often no evidence of this at the surface. The Interior Salt Basin consists of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, which date back 200 million years. The Black Warrior Basin is composed of Paleozoic rocks, some of which date back 580 million years. This region is also famous for its vast coal reserves, such as the Warrior Coal Field. Oil Rig Petroleum forms in the microscopic pores of rocks such as sandstone and limestone and slowly makes its way to the surface. When the petroleum becomes trapped in its migration, it forms an oil or gas field. Common traps are geologic features known as faults and anticlines. Faults are cracks in layers of rock in which the rocks on either side of the crack move in relation to each other. This can be envisioned by thinking of a knife slicing through a layer cake and seeing one side of the cake slump downward. Anticlines are dome-shaped folds in sections of layered rock. Geologists search for these traps with machines that measure gravity, magnetic, and seismic data, all of which tell them critical properties of buried rock layers. Geologists refer to a likely place for oil or gas as a "prospect." When a prospect is identified, "landmen" are sent in to lease the mineral rights from property owners, who retain a royalty, which is a share of the revenue generated by the oil and gas produced from the owner's property. After the leases are acquired, drilling rigs are brought in to drill and test the prospect. Chesley Pruet and Dudley Hughes Knowing the geology of the state extremely well, Jones became convinced that Alabama would one day become a significant petroleum producer. He continued to lobby the legislature for laws to encourage oil men to come to Alabama with their drilling rigs. But it was not until World War II broke out in 1939 that Jones saw his wishes come true, when demand for oil rose and Alabama's fortunes changed. In 1944, Texas oilman Haroldson "H. L." Hunt drilled beside a fault in Choctaw County and discovered the Gilbertown Field in the Eutaw Sand at a depth of 3,700 feet. That field produced 15 million barrels of oil (1 barrel = 42 gallons), not a lot by modern standards but enough to make "oil fever" spread rapidly. Other companies, many of which were run by independent prospectors popularly known as "wildcatters," followed Hunt's lead, but 11 years passed before they found the next significant discovery. Early Jurassic Landscape Reconstruction As oil drilling boomed in south Alabama in the late 1960s and 1970s, wildcatter Walter Sistrunk struck gas in the Black Warrior Basin in Lamar County, as did engineer William Tucker in Fayette County. Both men, as well as Pruet and Hughes, headed small but aggressive companies called "Independents" that used investment money from various other oil industry sources. These pioneers lured many more companies, which spread natural gas development through the northwest Alabama region. Gas Rig in the Gulf of Mexico In 1978, with protections in place to preserve the bay's ecology, Mobil moved in a huge offshore rig. They drilled more than 21,000 feet into an ancient desert called the Norphlet Sandstone and discovered the largest natural gas field east of the Mississippi, the Lower Mobile Bay–Mary Ann Field. The discovery formed the core of offshore development that eventually located six trillion cubic feet of reserves and as of 2007 has sent $2.1 billion worth of royalties to Alabama's Heritage Trust Fund, which uses the interest from the funds to help pay for the state's education and infrastructure needs. The fund was the first of its kind in U.S. history. Oil and gas activity in Mobile Bay and the nearby Gulf of Mexico waters stands today as a global environmental standard for offshore drilling and production operations. Choctaw Ridge Oil Field Walter B. Jones's vision for Alabama has come true. Alabama now ranks 10th among the states in natural gas production and 15th in liquid petroleum. Since the first meager gas discovery at Hazel Green, thousands of wells have been drilled across the state. Most have produced nothing, but by 2007 the successful ones were producing nearly $2.5 billion worth of oil and gas annually, $500 million of which goes to Alabama's citizens in the form of taxes, royalties, and trusts. Alabama's several locally owned and operated companies join many others from across the nation and abroad to employ thousands of local workers in finding, extracting, refining, and transporting the state's petroleum resources.

Oil and gas is still being found in Alabama, and geologists believe new opportunities exist in the hard shales of the deep Black Warrior Basin beneath Pickens and Tuscaloosa Counties and in the thick fractured shales of St. Clair and neighboring counties.

Cockrell, Alan. Drilling Ahead: The Quest for Oil in the Deep South, 1945-2005. Oxford: University Press of Mississippi, 2005.


Our history

Today we operate in most of the world's countries and are best-known by our familiar brand names: Exxon, Esso and Mobil. We make the products that drive modern transportation, power cities, lubricate industry and provide petrochemical building blocks that lead to thousands of consumer goods.

Colonel Edwin Drake and Uncle Billy Smith drill the first successful oil well in Titusville, Pennsylvania. The colonel's discovery triggers an oil boom that parallels the gold rush of a decade earlier.

Rockefeller and his associates form the Standard Oil Company (Ohio), with combined facilities constituting the largest refining capacity of any single firm in the world. The name Standard is chosen to signify high, uniform quality.

Standard Oil Co. purchases a three-quarters interest in Vacuum Oil Company for $200,000. As a lubricants pioneer, Vacuum Oil introduces a number of popular products, including the revolutionary Gargoyle 600-W Steam Cylinder Oil.

Standard Oil lubricates Thomas Edison's first central generating system. Also in this year, Standard Oil Trust forms to include the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (Jersey Standard) and the Standard Oil Company of New York (Socony).

The Standard Oil Trust moves its headquarters to 26 Broadway, New York City. The nine-story office building becomes a landmark. The same year, Vacuum develops Gargoyle Arctic engine oils for newly designed generators and motors that operate at speeds of up to 1,000 rpm.

The Wright brothers, Wilbur and Orville, use both Jersey Standard fuel and Mobiloil (Vacuum) lubricants for their historic first flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

Socony gains a strong foothold in the vast market for kerosene in China by developing small lamps that burned kerosene efficiently. The lamps become known as Mei-Foo, from the Chinese symbols for Socony, meaning "beautiful confidence."

Following a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision, Standard Oil breaks up into 34 unrelated companies, including Jersey Standard, Socony and Vacuum Oil. The year also marks the first time Jersey Standard's sales of kerosene are surpassed by gasoline, a product that in the early days had often been discarded as a nuisance.

Ralph De Palma, winner of the Indianapolis 500, is the first of many Indy winners to use Mobil products. His average speed: 89.84 mph.

Jersey Standard acquires a 50-percent interest in Humble Oil & Refining Company of Texas. It was during this year that Humble, led by its pioneering Chief Geologist Wallace Pratt, employed micropaleontology, the study of microscopic fossils contained in cuttings and core samples from drilling, as an aid in finding oil.

Jersey Standard researchers produce rubbing alcohol, or isopropyl alcohol &mdash the first commercial petrochemical.

Embodying the phonetic rendition of the initials &lsquoS&rsquo and &lsquoO&rsquo in Standard Oil, Jersey Standard brings out a new blend of fuel under the trade name Esso.

Humble geophysicists use a refraction seismograph and discover an oil field in Sugarland, Texas.

Amelia Earhart uses Mobiloil to protect Friendship when she makes her historic solo flight across the Atlantic. The previous year, Charles Lindbergh used Mobiloil in the Spirit of St. Louis on the first solo flight across the Atlantic.

First commercial unit in a cat-cracking refinery begins operation at Socony-Vacuum&rsquos Paulsboro, New Jersey, refinery. The unit used a process developed by French scientist Eugene P. Houdry with the financial backing of Socony-Vacuum. The process added a clay-like catalyst to the cracking process to boost gasoline yields and octane rating.

Harlem postman Victor Green creates the Green Book. Often referred to as the &ldquoBible of Black travel,&rdquo the Green Book listed service stations, hotels, restaurants and other establishments where Black travelers would be welcomed. Jersey Standard was the only major retail distributor of the Green Book through its network of Esso service stations, which welcomed Black motorists and also provided business opportunities for Black franchisees. The Green Book was published and distributed nationwide until 1967.

Jersey Standard researchers produce an artificial rubber, butyl. Today, butyl is used in the creation of tires, surgical tapes, protective coatings and more.

The world's first commercial production of alkylate begins at a Humble plant in Baytown, Texas. Alkylation made possible the manufacturing of iso-octane, used as a blending agent to produce 100-octane aviation gasoline.

The world&rsquos first fluid catalytic cracker goes onstream at Louisiana Standard&rsquos Baton Rouge refinery. The process, developed by four Jersey Standard researchers known as the &ldquofour horsemen,&rdquo improved on the Houdry method for cat cracking and eventually became the industry standard for producing gasoline. Fortune magazine called it &ldquothe most revolutionary chemical-engineering achievement of the last 50 years.&rdquo

Jersey Standard introduces Uniflo motor oil, the first multigrade motor oil recommended for both summer and winter use.

Jersey Standard establishes the Esso Education Foundation, a program that gives financial aid to private colleges and universities.

Pan American Airways flies its first trans-Atlantic Boeing 707 flight from New York to London. The flight is fueled by Mobil aviation fuel.

An advertising copywriter in Chicago comes up with the advertising slogan &ldquoPut a tiger in your tank.&rdquo

Humble invents 3-D seismic technology, a revolution that completely changes the way the industry searches for oil and gas resources. (This breakthrough technology, coupled with the use of massive parallel computers in seismic imaging, has helped our geologists sharply reduce finding costs since the 1980s while increasing new field resource additions.)

Mobil celebrates 100 years since the founding of the Vacuum Oil Company in 1866 and changes its name to Mobil Oil Corporation. The company launches a wide-reaching identity program to emphasize the Mobil trade name.

Jersey Standard officially changes its name to Exxon Corporation. The name change is approved by Jersey Standard shareholders in a special shareholders&rsquo meeting.

Mobil introduces a synthetic automotive engine lubricant &mdash Mobil 1. Today, Mobil 1 is the world&rsquos leading synthetic motor oil.

Mobil participates in completion of Beryl A, the world's first concrete production platform. The 50-story-high structure was the prototype for other concrete deepwater facilities operating in the North Sea.

Mobil invents a process for converting methanol into high-octane gasoline through the use of the company&rsquos versatile ZSM-5 catalyst.

Exxon opens its own facility for environmental health research at East Millstone, New Jersey. Exxon Biomedical Sciences, Inc. conducts research to further assure the safety of Exxon operations and products.

Exxon celebrates 100 years since the formation of the Standard Oil Trust in 1882. In its first 100 years, the company evolved from a domestic refiner and distributor of kerosene to a large multinational corporation, involved at every level of oil and gas exploration, production, refining and marketing, and petrochemicals manufacturing.

Exxon Research and Engineering invents a powerful new imaging technique called 3-D microtomography to study the internal structure of opaque objects without damaging them.

On March 24, 1989, the tanker Exxon Valdez runs aground in Prince William Sound in Alaska. The Valdez oil spill was a tragic accident that ExxonMobil deeply regrets. The company took immediate responsibility for the spill, cleaned it up and voluntarily compensated those who claimed direct damages. Learn more about the Exxon Valdez.

Exxon introduces Exxpol, a single-site metallocene catalyst used to produce consistent, controllable molecular structures that make plastic and rubber products tougher and impact-resistant, with less haze and with excellent organoleptics (low off-taste and odor).

Exxon establishes the Save The Tiger Fund in partnership with the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. The Save The Tiger Fund is dedicated to supporting the conservation of Asia&rsquos remaining wild tigers. Since its establishment, ExxonMobil has provided $1 million annually in support of the Save The Tiger Fund.

Mobil introduces Speedpass, an electronic system which automatically activates the pump and charges purchases to a credit card. Speedpass is similar to the electronic toll technology successfully used on subway, bus and highway systems around the world.

On November 30, 1999, Exxon and Mobil join to form Exxon Mobil Corporation. &ldquoThis merger will enhance our ability to be an effective global competitor in a volatile world economy and in an industry that is more and more competitive,&rdquo said Lee Raymond and Lou Noto, chairmen and chief executive officers of Exxon and Mobil, respectively.

ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Company (EMRE) develops the SCANfining process, which uses a new proprietary catalyst to selectively remove more than 95 percent of the sulfur from gasoline while minimizing octane loss.

ExxonMobil, joined by other sponsors, initiates the Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP) at Stanford University &mdash a pioneering research effort to identify technologies that can meet energy demand with dramatically lower greenhouse gas emissions.

ExxonMobil partners with professional golfer Phil Mickelson and his wife, Amy, to launch the Mickelson ExxonMobil Teachers Academy. The academy is designed to provide third- through fifth-grade teachers with the knowledge and skills necessary to motivate kids to pursue careers in science and math.

ExxonMobil and Qatar Petroleum, with other joint-venture partners, expand development of the giant North Field offshore Qatar, the largest nonassociated gas field in the world.

Exxon Neftegas Limited (a subsidiary of Exxon Mobil Corporation) completes the drilling of the Z-11 well, the longest measured depth extended-reach drilling (ERD) well in the world. (Located on Sakhalin Island offshore eastern Russia, the record-setting Z-11 achieved a total measured depth of 37,016 feet [11,282 meters], or more than seven miles.)

ExxonMobil's donation through &ldquoIdol Gives Back&rdquo enables the distribution of hundreds of thousands of bed nets throughout disease-stricken communities in Angola.

Exxon Mobil Corporation (NYSE:XOM) and Synthetic Genomics Inc. (SGI) announced the opening of a greenhouse facility enabling the next level of research and testing in their algae biofuels program. In 2017, these efforts will yield a breakthrough involving modification of an algae strain that more than doubles its oil content without significantly inhibiting the strain&rsquos growth.

ExxonMobil finalizes its agreement with XTO Energy Inc., creating a new organization to focus on global development and production of unconventional resources. A plan to build and deploy a rapid response system that will be available to capture and contain oil in the event of a potential future underwater well blowout in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico is announced by Chevron, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil and Shell. ExxonMobil leads the containment system efforts on behalf of the sponsor companies.

Exxon Mobil Corporation announced two major oil discoveries and a gas discovery in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico after drilling the company's first post-moratorium deep-water exploration well. This is one of the largest discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico in the last decade.


The Complete History Of Oil Markets

Like most other commodities in the markets, crude oil prices have routinely experienced wild price swings alternating between times of great shortages, high demand and high prices and periods of oversupply, low demand and depressed prices. These so-called crude oil &ldquoPrice Cycles&rdquo tend to last several years, depending on variables such as oil demand, volume of oil drilled, processed and sold by the major producers.

Since the early days of commercial production in Baku, Azerbaijan, these price swings have been triggered by economic and political events, technological advancements and changes within the petroleum industry, and continue to influence prices in the present day.

Crude Oil Price History: 1861-Present


Source: IG Group

1800-1869: Early black gold rush

The modern oil industry traces back its roots to Baku where the first commercial refinery was established in 1837 to distil oil into paraffin for heating and lighting purposes.

The first modern oil well was sunk in Baku in 1846 and reached a depth of 21 meters. The single oil field accounted for more than 90% of global production, with most of the oil finding its way to Persia (present-day Iran).

Several commercial oil wells soon followed:

Pennsylvania was the epicenter of the first black gold rush, producing nearly 50% of the world&rsquos oil. Prices shot up rapidly from .49 per barrel in 1861 to $6.59 a barrel in 1865, representing a massive 1,245% climb in the space of just four years.

1870-1913: The auto revolution

Whereas some economists contend that the modern oil industry only took off after WWII with the creation of the Marshall Plan - part of which was an agreement for a Free On Board price for all players - others argue that the incorporation of Standard Oil Co by John D. Rockefeller in 1870 in Ohio was the true launchpad for the industry. Related: EIA Sharply Cuts Oil Price Forecast

Standard Oil quickly rose to prominence over the next two decades, driving down prices and buying up the competition. The company was so successful that it controlled nearly 90% of refined oil in the United States by 1890. As production continued to expand both in the US and in Russia, global oil prices fell from an average of $2.56 a barrel in 1876 to just .56 in 1892. This was further accelerated with the launch of the first commercial cars in Germany and the US in 1896, a technological revolution that would fuel unprecedented growth for the industry.

1901-1911: Rise of the oil majors

Many of the modern oil majors can trace their origins to the early 20th century.

- The discovery of oil at Spindletop, Texas, led to the creation of Texaco and Gulf Oil in 1901

- Increasing competitive pressure led to Shell and Royal Dutch merging in 1907 to form Royal Dutch/Shell

- BP, formerly known as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, was incorporated in 1908 following the discovery of oil in Iran

- Chevron, Exxon and Mobil (now Exxon Mobil) came into being in 1911 after the split of Standard Oil Co following an antitrust ruling by the US Supreme Court

The seven oil majors went on to control 85% of the world&rsquos oil reserves during their golden years in the 1970s.

1914-1949: Oil discoveries, wars, crises

The discovery of oil in Cushing, Oklahoma, in 1912 is considered an important milestone for the US oil industry because the region grew to become one of the most important oil fields in the country. Notably, it also became the settlement point for the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) oil price, a leading global oil price benchmark.

The next four and a half decades were a turbulent period marked by a series of major wars and economic crises, all of which would have an important bearing on oil prices.

First was WWI (1914-1918) which drove up global demand for oil that more than doubled oil prices from .81 per barrel in 1914 to $1.98 by the end of the war. Demand continued to grow even after the war ended mainly fueled by the ever-increasing popularity of the automobile and a gasoline shortage in the US west coast. At first, prices surged to $3.07 per barrel before retreating and stabilizing around $1.61 as production increased.

Around this time, oil companies started researching other applications for the commodity including commercial production of plastics. However, prices remained relatively low despite the extra demand created by these applications mainly due to a combination of stiff competition and plentiful supply. Meanwhile, major oil discoveries elsewhere continued to keep the markets awash with the commodity including Venezuela, Iraq, the USSR, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf of Mexico.

The discovery of oil in East Texas in 1930 was one of the major highlights of this period because it helped create an oil glut that happened to coincide with the Great Depression that consequently depressed prices from $1.19 in 1930 to .65 in 1931. It took the intervention of the Texas Railroad Commission which enforced production quotas to stabilize prices and prevent further declines.

Just like WWI, the beginning of WWII in 1939 also helped drive demand and goose prices. However, the effect was less pronounced this time around due to bountiful global supply. Nevertheless, the war made governments acutely aware of the need to control reserves, and it would clearly show in their actions over the next couple of decades.

1950-2003: Battle to control production

The ending of the second world war would usher in a period whereby many countries made concerted efforts to hold sway in global oil production, with several governments nationalizing their oil infrastructure.

Between 1950 and1960, Iran, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia all partly nationalized their oil industries. The Suez crisis of 1956-57 saw Egypt seize the Suez Canal through which nearly five percent of the world&rsquos oil flowed.

However, it was the US and USSR that would emerge as the biggest heavyweights in terms of production control. In the late 1950s, the USSR started to flood the market with cheap oil leading to price cuts by the majors in a bid to remain competitive. In response to these developments, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait and Venezuela teamed up and formed OPEC as a means to lower competition between their countries and also as a means to have a bigger impact in controlling supply.

OPEC went on to expand its membership over the next two decades with UAE, Libya, Indonesia, Qatar, Nigeria, Algeria, Gabon and Ecuador joining the organization. Between 1960 and 1976, most of these countries took control of their oil reserves by buying out or forcibly taking shares from the oil majors.

The US and the USSR continued to throw their weight around but soon the influence shifted to OPEC. In 1973, OPEC members embargoed countries supporting Israel in the Yom Kippur war. Consequently, oil prices shot up to levels never witnessed before, from $2.48 per barrel in 1972 to $11.58 by 1974 and even higher in parts of the US. Related: Is The U.S. Gas Boom Already Over?

It was around this time when oil was discovered in the North Sea in a region controlled by the UK and Norway. Oil from this area is referred to as Brent crude and is used alongside WTI to benchmark prices.

Iran sharply cut production during the Iranian revolution (1970-1980) and also during the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988 leading to a spike in prices to $36.83. However, prices fell again due to demand shocks as well as increased production by the USSR, which became the world&rsquos largest producer in 1988. Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, leading to the Gulf War. This created a major supply shock that led to prices shooting up from $14.98 per barrel before the war to $41.00 in September 1991.

The 1990s witnessed wild price fluctuations. The Soviet Union fell in 1991, precipitating the collapse of the Russian oil sector with production halving over the next decade mainly due to reduced investments. However, global demand also tumbled in 1997 due to the Asian financial crisis but managed to recover by the turn of the century after the region&rsquos economic outlook improved.

2003-Present: Hydraulic fracturing and a changing landscape

This next decade witnessed some of the most spectacular explosions in oil prices.

The US invaded Iraq in 2003 leading to supply uncertainties. This was further compounded by massive demand growth by Asia and China. Consequently, prices jumped from $28.38 per barrel in July 2000 to $146.02 in July 2008.

From here prices fell due to the global financial crisis of 2008 before staging a comeback. The Arab Spring of 2011 created supply shortages and helped push prices to $126.48 per barrel.

Technological advancements in recent times have significantly altered the global oil landscape. Hydraulic fracturing has pushed the US to the top of the pack once again, reducing the influence of OPEC and depressing prices. Flooding of the market by US shale has led to a sharp drop in global oil prices, from $114.84 per barrel in June 2014 to $28.47 in January 2016. OPEC has tried to ameliorate the glut by teaming up with non-OPEC countries such as Russia to implement production cuts. Consequently, prices have recovered somewhat but have never approached levels seen in the past decade.

With the US now acting as the new &lsquoswing producer&rsquo OPEC&rsquos influence and ability to control prices is likely to remain diminished. The unresolved trade war between the US and China as well as geopolitical uncertainty in Iran, Syria and other countries has helped goose prices from their 2016 lows of below $30 per barrel to $54.70 in October 2019. But with continued high levels of shale production and a weakening global economy, prices are expected to remain subdued with prices projected to average $66 a barrel in 2019 and $65 a barrel in 2020.


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