Thomas Graham - História

Thomas Graham - História


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Thomas Graham

(Tr: t. 202; 1. 115'6 "; b. 22'2" 'dph. 12'2 ", s. 10 k.; Cl." Strath ")

Thomas Graham-šnekový parný trauler s oceľovým trupom, postavený v roku 1918 spoločnosťou Scott and Sons pre britskú admirality v meste Bowling v Škótsku-si prenajalo námorníctvo od mája 1919 na účely oddelenia severomorského mínového oddelenia. , slúžila s odtrhnutím do leta 1919. Poslednou oficiálnou povinnosťou lode bolo zrejme previezť telo kapitána Roscoe C. Bulmera, veliteľa severomorského mínového oddelenia, z Kirkwallu do škótskeho Invernessu. Kapitán Bulmer bol vážne zranený pri automobilovej nehode v Kirkwalle 4. augusta 1919 a nasledujúci deň zomrel na palube lode Black Nawk (Destroyer Tender č. 9).

Thomas Graham bol 7. augusta vrátený do admirality.


Navigácia

Elizabeth Graham, moja stará mama, manželka Jamesa Grahama Glenwherryho, jej prapradedko Alex Graham, sa zúčastnila útoku na vojenské kasárne v Belfaste v roku 1737 a podľa folklóru bol mužom, ktorý počas Poruchy Heart's Of Steel, a preto sa jeho rodina stala generáciou známou ako „Sovereign Graham's“.

Ann Graham, prvá z troch detí Elizabeth a Jamesa

Richard Graham, slúžený v 1. W.W. druhé dieťa Alžbety a Jamesa. Neskôr bol O.C I.R.A počas pogromov v Ballinahinch, Co. Down. 20. roky 20. storočia V USA sa spojil s Cathal O'Byrne, ako Cathalovu hudobnú podporu získavať finančné prostriedky prostredníctvom cestovateľských koncertov s cieľom získať peniaze na stavbu domov pre katolíkov, ktorí boli spálení zo svojich domovov v ter pogrome, Amcomria Street, Beechmount bola jednou z týchto ulíc nové domy.

Môj otec vo veku 17 rokov v Los Angeles

James Graham, môj otec, 3. dieťa Elizabeth a Jamesa, slúžil v írskej armáde.

Catherine 'Kitty' Graham (rodená Mullan), moja matka, vyrastala v Ardoyne. Jej rodina pochádza z okresu Toomebridge Antrim Came z hrdého írskeho katolíckeho republikánskeho prostredia. Meno dostala po svojej babičke Catherine Mullan.

Moja sestra Bridie, najstaršia z 12 detí

Moja sestra Patsy

Moja sestra, Elizabeth. (Betty)

Môj brat Richard, Richard utiekol z cestnej väznice Crumlin Road v Belfaste 7. júna 1957, z väzenia, o ktorom sa v tej dobe hovorilo, že je najbezpečnejším väzením v Írsku a Veľkej Británii. Je veľmi individualistický a nekonformný.

Moja sestra Annie

Môj brat Paddy

Moja sestra Myrtle, 1965

Moja sestra Geraldine

Moja sestra Myrtle Doris, 1951

Moji bratia, dvojčatá, Brian a amp Noel

James Graham, môj otec, veľmi hrdý írsky katolík, napriek tomu hrdý na svoje írske presbyteriánske korene

Hrob mojich otcov

Joe a dcéra Deborah v hrobe môjho otca v Coventry, február 2007

Joe, Richard a Brian pri hrobe otcov.2007

Môj brat Hughie v hrobe otcov

Hrob mojej matky. Milltown.

Joe Graham, apríl 1981, v Los Angeles Radio klamal čiernu propagandu o Hunger Strikers, ktorú predával Adam Butler z britskej vlády a N.I.O v kalifornskej televízii a rozhlase.

Moje vnúčatá

Deborah a Simon

Kliknutím vyššie zobrazíte viac Grahamovej genealógie


Doktor Thomas Graham

Dr. Graham je na Flagler College od roku 1973. V súčasnosti je emeritným profesorom histórie na oddelení humanitných vied.

Doktorát z histórie získal na Floridskej univerzite v roku 1973. Titul MA a BA získal na Floridskej štátnej univerzite v rokoch 1967 a 1965.

Graham sa vo výskume zaoberá históriou Spojených štátov devätnásteho storočia. Je autorom Flagler's St. Augustine Hotels (Pineapple Press, 2004), The Awakening of St. Augustine (St. Augustine Historical Society, 1978), Charles H. Jones, novinár a politik zlatej doby (University Presses of Florida (1990) a svätého Augustína pána Flaglera. Jones založil Jacksonville, Florida Times-Union v 80. rokoch 19. storočia.

Je bývalým prezidentom a čestným doživotným členom Historickej spoločnosti St. Augustine a pôsobil v predstavenstve Floridskej historickej spoločnosti.

Narodený v Miami v roku 1943, jeho rodokmeň siaha cez rodiny Sanchezovcov a Alvarezovcov do začiatku 16. storočia v St. Augustine.


Black Enterprise , Október 1996, s. 60. septembra 2001, s. 80. februára 2005, s. 112.

Boston Globe , 6. júna 1999, s. N5 4. decembra 2001, s. D1.

Boston Herald , 17. mája 1998, s. 67.

BusinessWeek , 9. októbra 2000, s. 206 3. októbra 2005, s. 48, 10. októbra 2005, s. 95.

Business Wire, 24. júla 2001.

Denné správy (New York, NY), 20. septembra 2005, s. 54.

Viackanálové správy , 28. januára 2002, s. 22W.

New York Times , 3. apríla 1998, s. B2 2. mája 1999, sek. 3, s. 2. 18. júl 1999, odd. 14WC, s. 3. 20. septembra 2005, s. C8.


Dublinské jadro

Názov

Popis

V rozhovore 1 Graham diskutoval o svojom autorstve pripravovanej knihy o zónach bez jadrových zbraní, o rokovaniach, ktoré viedli k predĺženiu zmluvy o nešírení jadrových zbraní v roku 1995, o jeho spomienkach na učenie sa umenia diplomacie a o ceste, ktorou sa stal vyjednávač kontroly zbraní. Potom sa podelil o svoje skúsenosti z politického prenasledovania za svoju prácu, komentoval anti-jadrový aktivizmus Linusa Paulinga a ocenil aktivity prezidenta Baracka Obamu v súvislosti s nešírením jadrových zbraní.

Odtiaľ Graham odovzdal svoje spomienky na rokovania v mene viacerých prezidentských administratív a hovoril o svojej práci na zákaze používania chemických a biologických zbraní. Rozhovor bol ukončený myšlienkami Grahama o klimatických zmenách vrátane kľúčovej úlohy, ktorú by mohla hrať jadrová energia pri znižovaní závislosti sveta na fosílnych palivách.

V rokoch 1970 až 1997 bol veľvyslanec Graham účastníkom rokovaní o všetkých dôležitých dohodách o kontrole zbraní a nešírení zbraní, ktoré zahŕňali Spojené štáty. V tom istom období sa zúčastnil diplomatických diskusií so zástupcami viac ako sto krajín.


Dublinské jadro

Názov

Popis

V rozhovore 2 Graham diskutoval o svojich raných rokoch, vrátane účasti jeho rodiny v politike, formovania jeho politickej perspektívy a jeho prvej práce v oblasti práva a vlády. Potom sa vyjadril k pokusu z roku 1993 o odstránení Agentúry pre kontrolu a odzbrojenie (ACDA), boja Reaganovej éry o zmluve o protiraketových raketách, ktorý bol zahájený pokrokom strategickej obrannej iniciatívy, známej tiež ako & quotStar Vojny & quot a jeho osobné spomienky na odsúdenie politickými nepriateľmi, ktorí mali proti jeho práci vlastné záujmy. Ďalej sa zamyslel nad konečným rozpustením ACDA v roku 1999 a úlohou, ktorú zohral senátor Jesse Helms pri vytváraní zániku agentúry.

Neskôr na zasadnutí Graham hovoril o účasti v skupine s názvom Republikáni za Obamu, ktorá si dlho pripomenula rokovania, ktoré na začiatku 90. rokov viedli k podpísaniu a ratifikácii Zmluvy o konvenčných ozbrojených silách v Európe, a podelil sa o svoje spomienky na kolaps sovietskeho bloku vo východnej Európe vrátane jeho osobnej skúsenosti s pozorovaním konečného odchodu komunistických ministrov z Prahy. Rozhovor bol ukončený úvahami Grahama o úlohe, ktorú ACDA zohrala pri obrane moratória na zákaz jadrových skúšok, vrátane kľúčového rozhodnutia súvisiaceho s ambíciami čínskeho jadrového testovania. Reagoval tiež na záverečnú otázku so žiadosťou o radu, ktorú by ponúkol tým, ktorí dúfajú, že svet zbavia jadrových zbraní.

V rokoch 1970 až 1997 bol veľvyslanec Graham účastníkom rokovaní o všetkých dôležitých dohodách o kontrole zbraní a nešírení zbraní, ktoré zahŕňali Spojené štáty. V tom istom období sa zúčastnil diplomatických diskusií so zástupcami viac ako sto krajín.


Thomas Graham - História

Niektoré z fyzikálnych vlastností plynov závisia od identity plynu. Jednu z týchto fyzikálnych vlastností je možné vidieť pri štúdiu pohybu plynov.

V roku 1829 Thomas Graham použil prístroj podobný tomu, ktorý je znázornený na obrázku 4.15, na štúdium difúzie plynov - rýchlosti, ktorou sa dva plyny miešajú. Toto zariadenie pozostáva zo sklenenej trubice utesnenej na jednom konci sadrou, ktorá má dostatočne veľké otvory na to, aby plyn mohol vstúpiť do trubice alebo ju z nej opustiť. Keď je skúmavka naplnená H2 plyn, hladina vody v trubici pomaly stúpa, pretože H2 molekuly vo vnútri trubice unikajú cez otvory v sadre rýchlejšie, ako môžu molekuly vo vzduchu vstúpiť do trubice. Vďaka štúdiu rýchlosti, ktorou sa hladina vody v tomto zariadení menila, bol Graham schopný získať údaje o rýchlosti, ktorou sa rôzne plyny miešali so vzduchom.

Graham zistil, že rýchlosti difúzie plynov sú nepriamo úmerné druhej odmocnine ich hustôt.

Tento vzťah sa nakoniec stal známym ako Grahamov zákon difúzie.

Aby sme pochopili dôležitosť tohto objavu, musíme si uvedomiť, že rovnaké objemy rôznych plynov obsahujú rovnaký počet častíc. Výsledkom je, že počet mólov plynu na liter pri danej teplote a tlaku je konštantný, čo znamená, že hustota plynu je priamo úmerná jeho molekulovej hmotnosti. Grahamov difúzny zákon je preto možné napísať aj nasledovne.

Podobné výsledky boli získané, keď Graham študoval rýchlosť výpotku plynu, čo je rýchlosť, ktorou plyn uniká dierkou do vákua. Rýchlosť výpotku plynu je tiež nepriamo úmerná druhej odmocnine buď hustoty alebo molekulovej hmotnosti plynu.

Grahamov zákon výpotku je možné demonštrovať na zariadení uvedenom nižšie. Hrubostenná filtračná banka sa evakuuje vákuovou pumpou. Striekačka je naplnená 25 ml plynu a stopkami sa meria čas potrebný na to, aby plyn unikol ihlou injekčnej striekačky do evakuovanej filtračnej banky. Experimentálne údaje v nižšie uvedenej tabuľke boli získané pomocou špeciálnej ihly s veľmi malým (0,015 cm) otvorom, cez ktorý mohol plyn unikať.

Čas potrebný na to, aby 25 ml vzoriek rôznych plynov uniklo dierou 0,015 cm do vákua

Zlúčenina Čas (y) Molekulová hmotnosť
H2 5.1 2.02
On 7.2 4.00
NH3 14.2 17.0
vzduch 18.2 29.0
O2 19.2 32.0
CO2 22.5 44.0
SO2 27.4 64.1

Ako vidíme, keď sú tieto údaje graficky znázornené nižšie, čas potrebný na únik 25 ml vzoriek rôznych plynov do vákua je úmerný druhej odmocnine molekulovej hmotnosti plynu. The sadzba pri ktorej je výpotok plynov nepriamo úmerný druhej odmocnine molekulovej hmotnosti. Grahamove pozorovania týkajúce sa rýchlosti difúzie plynov (zmes) alebo výpotku (únik dierkou) naznačujú, že relatívne ľahké plynné častice, ako napríklad H2 molekuly alebo atómy He sa pohybujú rýchlejšie ako relatívne ťažké plynné častice, ako je CO2 alebo tak2 molekuly.

Graf času potrebného na únik 25 ml vzoriek rôznych plynov do evakuovanej banky oproti druhej odmocnine molekulovej hmotnosti plynu. Relatívne ťažké molekuly sa pohybujú pomalšie a úniku plynu trvá dlhšie.

Kinetickú molekulárnu teóriu je možné použiť na vysvetlenie výsledkov, ktoré Graham získal pri štúdiu difúzie a efúzie plynov. Kľúčom k tomuto vysvetleniu je posledný postulát kinetickej teórie, ktorý predpokladá, že teplota systému je úmerná priemernej kinetickej energii jeho častíc a ničomu inému. Inými slovami, teplota systému sa zvyšuje vtedy a len vtedy, ak dochádza k zvýšeniu priemernej kinetickej energie jeho častíc.

Dva plyny, ako napríklad H.2 a O.2, pri tej istej teplote preto musí mať rovnakú priemernú kinetickú energiu. To môže byť reprezentované nasledujúcou rovnicou.

Túto rovnicu je možné zjednodušiť vynásobením oboch strán dvoma.

Potom môže byť usporiadaný tak, aby poskytoval nasledujúce.

Ak vezmeme druhú odmocninu oboch strán tejto rovnice, dostaneme vzťah medzi pomerom rýchlostí, pri ktorých sa dva plyny pohybujú, a druhou odmocninou z pomeru ich molekulových hmotností.

Táto rovnica je upravenou formou Grahamovho zákona. Naznačuje to, že rýchlosť (alebo rýchlosť), ktorou sa molekuly plynu pohybujú, je nepriamo úmerná druhej odmocnine ich molekulových hmotností.


Grahamova história, rodinný erb a erby

Významná rodina Grahamovcov, ktorá je dôkladne vtkaná do zložitej tapisérie škótskej histórie, má svoj pôvod u hrdých normanských ľudí. Názov pochádza z miesta Grantham v Lincolnshire, ktoré je v Domesday Book zaznamenané ako Graham.

Sada 4 hrnčekov na kávu a kľúčeniek

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Počiatočný pôvod rodiny Grahamovcov

Priezvisko Graham bol prvýkrát nájdený v Midlothiane, kde sa usadili po tom, ako v 12. storočí sprevádzali grófa Davida z Huntingdonu do Škótska. V roku 1128 kráľ David I. udelil krajiny Abercorn a Dalkeith Williamovi de Grahamovi, ktorý je prvým zaznamenaným členom klanu Grahamovcov v Škótsku a bol svedkom niekoľkých kráľovských listín.

Henry de Graham zdedil majetky svojho svokra v Eskdale v roku 1243. Sir John de Grahame bol verným spoločníkom škótskeho vlastenca Sira Williama Wallaceho a bol zabitý v bitke pri Falkirku v roku 1298.

„[Grahamston] odvodzuje svoj názov od sira Johna Grahama, ktorý tu bol zabitý v bitke, v ktorej bojoval Wallace s Edwardom I.“ [1]

Balíček histórie erbu a priezviska

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Raná história rodiny Grahamovcov

Táto webová stránka zobrazuje iba malý výňatok z nášho Grahamovho výskumu. Ďalších 422 slov (30 riadkov textu) pokrývajúcich roky 1086, 1128, 1237, 1298, 1488, 1427, 1707, 1450, 1603, 1715, 1745, 1782, 1464, 1513, 1505, 1548, 1608, 1612, 1650, 1648, 1689, 1648, 1695, 1634, 1694, 1702, 1680, 1689 a sú zahrnuté do témy Raná Grahamova história vo všetkých našich produktoch PDF a tlačených produktoch s rozšírenou históriou PDF.

Unisex mikina s kapucňou a erbom

Variácie Grahamovho pravopisu

Pravopisné variácie tohto priezviska zahŕňajú: Graham, Grahame, Graeme, Grame, Greumach (gaelský), Montross a mnoho ďalších.

Skoré významné osobnosti rodiny Grahamovcov (pred 1700)

V tejto dobe bol z rodiny pozoruhodný William Graham, 4. lord Graham (1464-1513), ktorý sa stal grófom z Montrose v roku 1505 John Graham (1548-1608), 3. gróf z Montrose bol kancelárom Univerzity St. Andrews James Graham (1612-1650), 5. gróf a 1. markýz z Montrose, škótsky generál v anglických občianskych vojnách, ktorý bojoval za monarchistov Karola.
Ďalších 63 slov (4 riadky textu) je obsiahnutých v téme Early Graham Notables vo všetkých našich produktoch rozšírenej histórie PDF a tlačených produktoch, kdekoľvek je to možné.

Migrácia rodiny Grahamovcov do Írska

Niektorí z Grahamovej rodiny sa presťahovali do Írska, ale táto téma nie je zahrnutá v tomto úryvku.
Ďalších 62 slov (4 riadky textu) o ich živote v Írsku je zahrnutých vo všetkých našich produktoch PDF s rozšírenou históriou a tlačených produktoch, kedykoľvek je to možné.

Grahamova migrácia +

Niektorí z prvých osadníkov tohto priezviska boli:

Graham Settlers v USA v 17. storočí
  • Ant Graham, ktorý sa usadil vo Virgínii v roku 1651
  • A Graham, ktorý prišiel do Virginie v roku 1651 [2]
  • Donell Graham, ktorý pristál vo Virgínii v roku 1655 [2]
  • Elizabeth Graham, ktorá pristála v Marylande v roku 1676 [2]
  • Jane Graham, ktorá pristála v Marylande v roku 1677 [2]
  • . (Viac je k dispozícii vo všetkých našich produktoch s predĺženou históriou PDF a tlačených produktoch, kdekoľvek je to možné.)
Graham Settlers v USA v 18. storočí
  • Francis Graham, ktorý pristál v Novom Anglicku v roku 1719 [2]
  • Jo Graham, ktorý sa usadil v Gruzínsku v roku 1733
  • Catharine Graham, ktorá prišla do New Yorku v New Yorku v roku 1738 [2]
  • Eliz Graham, ktorá prišla do New Yorku v roku 1738 [2]
  • Angus Graham, ktorý prišiel do New Yorku v roku 1740 [2]
  • . (Viac je k dispozícii vo všetkých našich produktoch s predĺženou históriou PDF a tlačených produktoch, kdekoľvek je to možné.)
Graham Settlers v USA v 19. storočí
  • James W Graham, ktorý pristál v New Yorku v roku 1801 [2]
  • Alexander Graham, 34 -ročný, ktorý pristál v New Yorku v roku 1803 [2]
  • Humphry Graham, 50 -ročný, ktorý pristál vo Philadelphii v Pensylvánii v roku 1804 [2]
  • Gilbert Graham, ktorý pristál v Amerike v roku 1804 [2]
  • Joanna Graham, ktorá pristála v Amerike v roku 1805 [2]
  • . (Viac je k dispozícii vo všetkých našich produktoch s predĺženou históriou PDF a tlačených produktoch, kdekoľvek je to možné.)

Grahamova migrácia do Kanady +

Niektorí z prvých osadníkov tohto priezviska boli:

Graham Settlers v Kanade v 18. storočí
  • Augustine Graham, ktorý prišiel do Nového Škótska v roku 1749
  • Donald Graham, ktorý pristál v Novom Škótsku v roku 1773
  • Donald Graham, ktorý prišiel do Pictou v Novom Škótsku v roku 1773
  • Pán Mires Graham, Spojené kráľovstvo (nar. 1764), ktorý dorazil do Annapolis Royal, Annapolis County, Nové Škótsko c. 1782 zomrel v roku 1833 v Centreville, Digby County, Nové Škótsko, ženatý s Annou Wagonerovou, mali 4 deti [3]
  • Pán Oliver Graham U.E. ktorí sa usadili vo východnom okrese [Cornwall], Ontario c. 1784 [3]
  • . (Viac je k dispozícii vo všetkých našich produktoch s predĺženou históriou PDF a tlačených produktoch, kdekoľvek je to možné.)
Graham Settlers v Kanade v 19. storočí
  • Elizabeth Graham, ktorá prišla do Nového Škótska v roku 1814
  • Elizabeth Graham, ktorá pristála v Novom Škótsku v roku 1821
  • Duncan Graham, ktorý prišiel do Kanady v roku 1832
  • Sarah Grahamová, 40 -ročná, ktorá pricestovala do Saint John v New Brunswicku v roku 1833 na palube brigády „Williams“ z Cork, Írsko
  • 18 -ročná Catherine Graham, ktorá prišla do Saint John v New Brunswicku na palube lode „Quintin Leitch“ v roku 1833
  • . (Viac je k dispozícii vo všetkých našich produktoch s predĺženou históriou PDF a tlačených produktoch, kdekoľvek je to možné.)

Grahamova migrácia do Austrálie +

Emigrácia do Austrálie nasledovala po prvých flotilách odsúdených, živnostníkov a prvých osadníkov. Medzi prvých prisťahovalcov patrí:

Graham Settlers v Austrálii v 19. storočí
  • Pán John Graham, († 1786), vo veku 15 rokov, írsky odsúdený, ktorý bol odsúdený na 7 rokov v Dubline v Írsku, sa 29. novembra 1801 previezol na palubu lietadla „Atlas“ a dorazil do Nového Južného Walesu v Austrálii. Zomrel v roku 1859 [4. ]
  • Slečna Mary Ann Grahamová, írska odsúdená, ktorá bola odsúdená na 7 rokov v írskom Corku, sa 29. novembra 1801 prepravila na palubu lietadla „Atlas“ a dorazila do Nového Južného Walesu v Austrálii [4]
  • John Graham, škótsky trestanec, ktorý bol odsúdený v škótskom Perthe na 14 rokov, sa 19. júna 1822 prepravil na palubu „Kaledónie“ a dorazil do Tasmánie (Van Diemenova krajina) [5]
  • Thomas Graham, stolár, ktorý prišiel do Nového Južného Walesu v Austrálii niekedy v rokoch 1825 až 1832
  • William Graham, tkáč, ktorý prišiel do Van Diemenovej krajiny (teraz Tasmánia) niekedy medzi rokmi 1825 a 1832
  • . (Viac je k dispozícii vo všetkých našich produktoch s predĺženou históriou PDF a tlačených produktoch, kdekoľvek je to možné.)

Grahamova migrácia na Nový Zéland +

Emigrácia na Nový Zéland išla po stopách európskych prieskumníkov, akými boli kapitán Cook (1769-70): najskôr prišli tulene, veľrybári, misionári a obchodníci. V roku 1838 začala Britská novozélandská spoločnosť skupovať pozemky od maorských kmeňov a predávať ich osadníkom. Po Waitangskej zmluve v roku 1840 sa mnoho britských rodín vydalo na náročnú šesťmesačnú cestu z Británie do Aotearoa. nový život. Medzi prvých prisťahovalcov patrí:

Graham Settlers na Novom Zélande v 19. storočí
  • Thomas Graham, ktorý pristál v Bay of Islands na Novom Zélande v roku 1836
  • David Graham, ktorý pristál v Aucklande na Novom Zélande v roku 1840
  • George Graham, ktorý pristál v Aucklande na Novom Zélande v roku 1840
  • W S Graham, ktorý pristál v Aucklande na Novom Zélande v roku 1840
  • Pán Graham, austrálsky osadník cestujúci zo Sydney na palubu lode „Bee“, prichádzajúci do Bay of Islands, North Island, Nový Zéland v roku 1840 [6]
  • . (Viac je k dispozícii vo všetkých našich produktoch s predĺženou históriou PDF a tlačených produktoch, kdekoľvek je to možné.)

Súčasné významy mena Graham (pošta 1700) +

  • Katharine Meyer Graham (1917-2001), americká vydavateľka denníka The Washington Post, jej monografie s názvom Osobná história, získala v roku 1998 Pulitzerovu cenu a získala Prezidentskú medailu slobody
  • Martha Graham (1894-1991), americká tanečnica, choreografka a držiteľka Prezidentskej medaily slobody
  • William Franklin "Billy" Graham KBE ml. (1918-2018), americký evanjelický kresťanský evanjelista a vysvätený minister južných baptistov, hostiteľ každoročných krížových výprav Billyho Grahama (1947-2005), duchovný poradca každého prezidenta od Harryho Trumana po Baracka Obamu
  • Julia & quot; Julie & quot; Graham ( * 1965), škótska televízna a filmová herečka, známa svojimi úlohami v The Bletchley Circle a Shetland
  • Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham (1852-1936), škótsky spisovateľ a politik
  • Elizabeth Jennings Graham (1827-1901), americká osobnosť občianskych práv, ktorá v roku 1854 trvala na svojom práve jazdiť na električke v New Yorku, čo viedlo k desegregácii tranzitných systémov v New Yorku
  • Andrew Alexander Kenny & „Alec“ Graham (1929-2021), anglický anglikánsky biskup pre diecézu Newcastle (1981-1997)
  • Lawrence Otis Graham (1961-2021), americký advokát a najpredávanejší autor New York Times
  • Ronald Lewis Graham (1935-2020), americký matematik uznávaný Americkou matematickou spoločnosťou ako „hlavný architekt architektúry rýchleho celosvetového rozvoja diskrétnej matematiky v posledných rokoch“
  • Chuck Graham (1965-2020), americký politik v Demokratickej strane
  • . (Ďalších 32 pozoruhodností je k dispozícii vo všetkých našich produktoch s predĺženou históriou PDF a v tlačených produktoch, kedykoľvek je to možné.)

Historické udalosti pre rodinu Grahamovcov +

Let Arrow 1285
  • Thomas Lyle Graham (1958), americký špecialista 4. triedy z Jacksonville na Floride v USA, ktorý zomrel pri nehode [7]
  • Kelly O Graham (nar. 1966), americký špecialista 4. triedy zo San Jose, Kalifornia, USA, ktorý zomrel pri nehode [7]
Cisárovná Írska
  • Pani Elizabeth Graham (1868-1914), n ée Humphreys Britský cestujúci prvej triedy vracajúci sa z Hongkongu v Číne, ktorý cestoval na palube írskej cisárovnej a zomrel pri potopení [8]
  • Pán Walter Graham (1859-1914), britský cestujúci prvej triedy vracajúci sa z Hongkongu v Číne, ktorý cestoval na palube írskej cisárovnej a zomrel pri potopení [8]
Let TWA 800
  • Pán Steven K. Graham (1958-1996), 38-ročný, z Napa, Kalifornia, USA, americký marketingový riaditeľ lietajúci na palube letu TWA 800 z J.F.K. Letisko New York na letisko Leonarda da Vinciho v Ríme, keď lietadlo havarovalo po štarte, zahynul pri havárii [9]
Výbuch v Halifaxe
  • Pán Francis   Graham (1892-1917), kanadský železiar v Halifax Graving Dock z Dartmouthu v Novom Škótsku v Kanade, ktorý zomrel pri výbuchu [10]
  • Pani Florence   Graham (1894-1917), kanadská obyvateľka z Halifaxu, Nové Škótsko, Kanada, ktorá zomrela pri výbuchu [10]
HMAS Sydney II
  • Pán George Albert Graham (1920-1941), austrálsky radový námorník z Belmore v Novom Južnom Walese v Austrálii, ktorý vplával do boja na palube HMAS Sydney II a zomrel pri potopení [11]
Kapucňa HMS
  • Pán Donald Graham (nar. 1916), anglický zásobovací asistent slúžiaci pre kráľovské námorníctvo z Portsmouthu, Hampshire, Anglicko, ktorý vplával do bitky a zomrel pri potápaní [12]
HMS princ z Walesu
  • William Marcus Graham, britský poručík, ktorý sa plavil do boja na lodi HMS Prince of Wales a prežil potopenie [13]
  • William Graham, britský schopný námorník, ktorý sa plavil do boja na lodi HMS Prince of Wales a prežil potopenie [13]
  • Alastair Kennedy Douglas Graham, britský praporčík Paymaster, ktorý sa plavil do boja na lodi HMS Prince of Wales a prežil potopenie [13]
Odrazenie HMS
HMS Royal Oak
  • Samuel Graham († 1939), britský námorník z rezervácie Royal Navy Reserve na palube lode HMS Royal Oak, keď bola torpédovaná lietadlom U-47 a potopená, zomrel pri potápaní [15]
  • Philip William Colles Graham (1920-1939), britský praporčík kráľovského námorníctva na palube lode HMS Royal Oak, keď bola torpédovaná lietadlom U-47 a potopená, zomrel pri potápaní [15]
  • George Munroe Graham (1922-1939), britský chlapec 1. triedy s kráľovským námorníctvom na palube lode HMS Royal Oak, keď bola torpédovaná lietadlom U-47 a potopená, zomrel pri potápaní [15]
Dáma jazera
  • Slečna Jane Grahamová (nar. 1817), írska cestovateľka zo severoírskeho Coleraine, ktorá sa 8. apríla 1833 plavila na palube lode „Lake of Lake“ zo škótskeho Greenocku do kanadského Quebecu, keď loď narazila na ľad a potopila sa na pobreží Newfoundlandu. 11. mája 1833 a zomrela pri potopení
  • Slečna Mary Ann Grahamová (nar. 1815), cestovateľka, ktorá sa 8. apríla 1833 plavila na palube lode „Lake of the Lake“ zo škótskeho Greenocku do kanadského Quebecu, keď loď 11. mája 1833 narazila na ľad a potopila sa na pobreží Newfoundlandu. zomrel pri potopení
RMS Lusitania
  • Gordon Graham, americký cestujúci 3. triedy zo San Francisca, Kalifornia, USA, ktorý sa plavil na palube lode RMS Lusitania a zomrel pri potopení [16]
RMS Titanic
  • Thomas G. Graham, 28 -ročný, írsky hasič/stoker z Belfastu v Írsku, ktorý pracoval na palube lode RMS Titanic a prežil potopenie [17]
  • Pani Edith Ware Graham, (n ée Junkins), vo veku 59 rokov, americká cestujúca prvej triedy z Greenwichu, Connecticut, ktorá sa plavila na palubu lode RMS Titanic a prežila potápajúci sa útek na záchrannom člne 3 [17]
  • Slečna Margaret Edith Grahamová, 19 -ročná, americká cestujúca prvej triedy z Greenwichu v Connecticute, ktorá sa plavila na palube lode RMS Titanic a prežila potápajúci sa útek na záchrannom člne 3 [17]
  • Pán George Edward Graham († 1912), vo veku 38 rokov, kanadský cestujúci prvej triedy z Winnipegu v Manitobe, ktorý sa plavil na palube lode RMS Titanic a zomrel pri potápaní a získal ho CS Mackay-Bennett [17]
SS Alcoa Puritan
  • B.F. Graham, americký schopný námorník z Mobile v Alabame, ktorý pracoval na palube SS Alcoa Puritan cestujúcej z Port of Spain, Trinidad do Mobile, Alabama, keď ho torpédovalo ponorkou U-507, prežil potopenie [18]
USS Arizona
  • Pán Donald A. Graham, strojník amerického letectva, prvá trieda pracujúca na palube lode „USS Arizona“, keď sa potopila počas japonského útoku na Pearl Harbor 7. decembra 1941, prežil potopenie [19]

Súvisiace príbehy +

Graham Motto +

Mottom bol pôvodne vojnový pokrik alebo slogan. Motta sa najskôr začali ukazovať so zbraňami v 14. a 15. storočí, ale až do 17. storočia sa bežne nepoužívali. Preto najstaršie erby spravidla neobsahujú motto. Motta sú zriedka súčasťou udeľovania zbraní: Podľa väčšiny heraldických autorít je heslo voliteľnou súčasťou erbu a mnohé rodiny sa ho môžu rozhodnúť ľubovoľne zobrazovať alebo ho ľubovoľne meniť.

Motto: Nie oublie
Preklad hesla: Nezabudni.


HistoryLink.org

V roku 1928 napísal Thomas Graham (1868-1946) sériu článkov v časopise Vyšetrovateľ Colville s názvom „Pred 50 rokmi“, v ktorom opisuje svoje skúsenosti a postrehy ako teenager v údolí Colville. Nasledujú výňatky zo spomienok, ktoré nasledujú Colville Collection, Kniha prvá, zostavil Patrick J. Graham (Colville: Colville Examiner, 1989), 79-120. Sú vytlačené s láskavým dovolením pána Grahama. Materiál v zátvorkách bol zhrnutý z textu alebo predložený na objasnenie prostredníctvom HistoryLink.org. Monografie Toma Grahama poskytujú fascinujúci pohľad z prvej ruky na priekopnícky život v údolí Colville.

Pozadie Thomasa Grahama a jeho spomienok

Rodina Thomasa Grahama dorazila do Stevens County z grófstva Monaghan v Írsku 14. októbra 1878 za pomoci Jamesa Monaghana (1839-1916), ktorý bol bratom Tomovej matky Rosanny Grahamovej. Tomov otec, tiež Thomas Graham, emigroval zo Škótska do Írska, kde sa oženil s Rosannou Monaghan. Deväťčlenná rodina sa plavila z Liverpoolu do New Yorku, odviezla južný Pacifik do San Franciska, potom loďou do Portlandu a riečnym člnom z Portlandu do Dalles, kde bolo vždy potrebné previezť sa okolo kaskád a potom pokračovať parníkom do Walluly. . Odtiaľ putovali po drevenej železnici Dr. Baker do Wally Wally, kde sa James Monoghan stretol s rodinou s dvoma vagónmi, aby ich previezli po Colville Road do oblasti Colville, vzdialenej viac ako 200 míľ. Táto cesta cez most Monaghan LaPray cez rieku Spokane trvala sedem dní a rodina celú dobu táborila. Strávili jednu noc v usadlosti Monaghan, ktorá je teraz súčasťou Chewelah, a potom pokračovali do Pinkney City, mesta, ktoré vyrástlo v susedstve vojenskej pevnosti Fort Colville, niečo viac ako tri míle severne od súčasného Colville.

Tom mal iba 10 alebo 11 rokov, keď jeho rodina dorazila do údolia Colville. Túto zimu strávil návštevou internátnej školy katolíckych misií v mieste súčasného Wardu. Na jar opustil školu a začal svoju kariéru ako veľmi mladý poštový operátor pracujúci pre svojho strýka Jamesa Monaghana, ktorý mal zmluvu na prepravu pošty trikrát týždenne medzi vojenskou pevnosťou Fort Colville a Colfax, čo je trasa dlhá asi 130 míľ. Tom a jeho o niečo starší bratia, John a James, preložili poštu nesiacu sa prácami na ranč Monaghan na pozemok, ktoré je teraz mestom Chewelah.

Medzi Grahamovými spomienkami na incidenty sa striedajú dlhé zoznamy mien osadníkov a ich rodín a celkové umiestnenie ich usadlostí. Niektorí boli bývalí vojaci, ktorí boli umiestnení vo Fort Colville, niektorí boli francúzsko-kanadskými bývalými zamestnancami Hudson’s Bay Company a ďalší, ako rodiny Monaghanovcov a Grahamovcov, boli prisťahovalci z Európy alebo priekopníci z východných Spojených štátov. Mnoho rodín bolo zmiešanej krvi, osadníci si vzali indické manželky. Tieto zoznamy sú pre genealógov neoceniteľné, ale príliš dlhé na to, aby ste ich tu mohli znova vytlačiť.

Historylink rozdelil Grahamovu monografiu na tri časti: Prvá sa zaoberá dobrodružstvami bratov Grahamovcov doručujúcich poštu medzi Spokane Falls a Fort Colville. Druhá sa týka poľnohospodárstva, farmárčenia a nákladnej dopravy v údolí Colville. Tretí opisuje spomienky Toma Grahama na indiánov v údolí.

Časť 1: Príchod a poštová cesta

. Náš prvý vstup do Pinkney City bol v nedeľu. V meste bola iba jedna ulica a bola pevne lemovaná Indiánmi a Kajusmi spolu s ich jazdcami - v niektorých prípadoch dve a tri jazdy na jedného koňa. Keďže nedeľa bola trhovým dňom, všetci prišli do mesta a samozrejme oblečení vo svojom nedeľnom najlepšom. Indiáni v krikľavých prikrývkach a pokrývkach hlavy boli pre kopu zelenáčov, ako sme my, prekvapivým pohľadom.

Čoskoro sme sa dozvedeli, ako sa veci v Amerike robia. Keď prišla nedeľa, v katolíckej cirkvi sa zhromaždil dobrý sbor bez ohľadu na vyznanie. . Prvým kňazom, ktorého sme tam stretli, slúžil omšu, bol otec Joset, Švajčiar, ktorý sem prišiel v roku 1844 ako jeden z sprievodcov v misijnom kostole pri Kettle Falls. Netreba dodávať, že otec [Joseph] Joset neovládal veľmi dobre anglický jazyk. Po omši sa pán Monaghan opýtal mojej matky, ako sa jej kázeň páči. Rýchlo ako blesk prišla odpoveď: „Bolo to v poriadku, ale zatiaľ neviem, či nám žehnal, alebo nás nadával.“ Bohoslužby sa v tomto kostole konali raz za mesiac a zúčastnili sa ich vojaci z posádky i osadníci.

. Začiatkom apríla ‘79 som opustil školu a vydal som sa na prvú cestu z Fort Colville s poštou USA. . Keď som dosiahol bod oproti súčasnému [1928] monaghanskému domovu, severne od Addy, vošiel som do bahennej diery, ktorá sa ukázala takmer bezodná. V snahe dostať sa von z bahennej diery kone vytrhli jazyk z dostavníka a dostali sa z blata. Keď som sa pozrel na poškodenie a nevidel som spôsob, ako ho opraviť, nechal som tam súpravu a vypol kone z jazyka. Vzal som postroj jedného koňa a nasadil ho na druhého, pričom som na ten istý kôň pripútal aj dve vrecká na poštu. Išiel som na druhom koni bez sedla do Chewelah, kde som odev odovzdal svojmu bratovi Johnovi, ktorý vyrazil na Walker’s Prairie, a zasa som dal poštu vodičovi medzi týmto bodom a Spokane Falls. V tejto chvíli by mohlo byť dobré spomenúť, že vodič na trati z Colfaxu do Spokane Falls bol pán Yale. jeden z najlepších pódiových jazdcov, akých som kedy videl.

. Vždy si budem v živej pamäti spomínať na pohostinnosť rodiny [Josepha] LaPraya na jar roku 1883. Nosil som americkú poštu medzi Chewelah a Fort Spokane, keď ma zasiahla neobvyklá búrka. Keď som opustil dom Guy Haines, dážď, dážď s dažďom a vietor boli také silné, že som pri prechode Walkerovou Prairie takmer zamrzol. Išiel som teda domov LaPray, v tom čase zrubového domu asi štvrť míle od hlavnej cesty.

Keď som prišiel k dverám a zavolal na pána LaPraya, vyšiel von a pomohol mi otvoriť ľavú ruku, aby som mohol uvoľniť uzdu uzdy, pričom môj odev bol strnulý. Pomohol mi do domu, kde vo veľkom krbe plápolal horiaci oheň. Pani La Prayová nechala rozmraziť moje oblečenie, zatiaľ čo pán La Pray dával môjho koňa do stodoly. Keďže som nemala oblečenie, ktoré by sa mi hodilo, uložili ma nahú do postele, kým mi pani LaPrayová sušila šaty.

Pán LaPray medzitým vošiel a oznámil, že nemôže vyviazať poštový vak zo sedla. Na jednu noc teda americkú poštu nechali odpočívať v stajni. Keď bola večera pripravená, omotal som okolo seba deku a obedoval som s rodinou. .

Guy Haines bol poštmajstrom vo Walkerovej Prairie, kde pôsobil dlhé roky. V jeho dome bola jedna z našich pódiových staníc, kde sme zvyčajne prenášali americkú poštu vodičovi zo Spokane Falls. Domov Haines bol zastávkou pre všetkých cestovateľov, kde si boli vždy istí priateľským privítaním, hranatým jedlom a dobrou posteľou. Hainesova usadlosť sa nachádzala na tom istom mieste, kde prví kongregační misionári, [Elkanah] Walker a [Cushing] Eells, začali svoju misijnú prácu medzi indiánmi zo Stevens County. . Otec Eells, ako ho volali, bol rovnako známy všetkým starousadlíkom zo Stevens County. Na našej scéne bol často pasažierom. The best part of the time he drove his own rig, a sorrel horse and buggy. His kindly ways endeared him to all who met him.

. It was a standing order from Mr. Monaghan, owner of the stage line, that all priests and ministers, regardless of creed or color, were to be carried at half fare. So an incident that occurred in ’79, while in no way reflecting on the traveling ministers, will bear repeating. A minister and his wife came from Walla Walla, riding on the stage, receiving the benefits of the lower fare rates due to all [those] of his supposed calling. However, on arriving at Fort Colville or Pinkney City, their subsequent actions proved they were imposters, he being a tinhorn gambler, while the wife was just a little lower in the scale of humanity. Having them again for passengers on the return trip, this time they paid full fare with the remark from the woman that they could afford it as following the U.S. paymaster was a paying proposition.

. The next [homestead was that of] James Monaghan, where the greater part of the town site of Chewelah now stands. My parents, brothers and sisters resided on and operated the farm for some years after coming to Stevens County. There in the fall of 1879 my oldest brother, Philip, join the family, coming from Australia. It was here also that my sister Rosanna was born in the same house where my cousin, John Robert Monaghan, the hero of Samoa, was born. [James Monaghan’s son, a Navy ensign and graduate of the Naval Academy at Annapolis, was killed defending a wounded comrade during in a skirmish in Samoa in 1899. In 1906 a large statue of him was erected at Riverside and Monroe streets in Spokane.]

. It was during our residence at Chewelah that my brothers and I each took our turn in handling Uncle Sam’s mail, as well as operating the farm. In those early days my brother John was the only one of us [legally] old enough to carry the mails, as a carrier had to be 16 years old before Uncle Sam would entrust him with anything so valuable. However, the good nature of the different postmasters throughout Stevens County kept them from inquiring too closely into the age of the drivers.

. The postmaster at Spokane Falls, Sylvester Heath, had some trouble with Mr. Yale, the driver between Colfax and Spokane Falls, with the result that Mr. Yale was ordered out of the post office. Not moving as fast as the postmaster thought he should, Mr. Heath came from behind his counter and ejected Mr. Yale bodily. This was what Mr. Yale was playing for, and as soon as he got Mr. Heath out of the post office, he turned on him and gave him a good thrashing. As soon as he was able to do so, he wrote Mr. Monaghan to discharge the fighting driver. I suppose that was one of the letters that were never answered. So Mr. Heath retaliated by refusing to allow my brother James to take the mail out on the next trip, saying he was not old enough to carry the U.S. mail. Being informed by friends of what was to happen, Jim took a mail sack in each hand, hefted them, saying: “Pshaw! They ain’t heavy. I can carry both of them.” With that he put them into the stage and drove off, leaving Postmaster Heath to make the best of it. There was no more trouble after this because of our age.

Let me relate an incident that occurred in the summer of 1879. Perhaps there are still [1828] old timers living who will remember the old log bridge that spanned the Colville River at the Reid Montgomery place. Every stick in it was round logs, even to the floor. On the day of this incident a heavily laden U.S. government mule team had crossed on its way to Fort Colville. At the point where the structure crossed the main stream the heavy wagon had broken one of the outside stringers. When a few hours later my brother John crossed with the stage wagon, he drove onto the broken part, innocent of the fact that anything was amiss with the bridge.

In less time that it takes to tell it, the broken part upset into the river, taking horses, rig and driver with it. The driver escaped by swimming, and on reaching the riverbank, called for help. The neighbors working in the hay fields soon responded to his call, as did also a band of Indians, who were camped nearby. It was found one of the horses was dead. An Indian named Buckskin Jim swam to where the outfit was and unharnessed the dead horse and started the carcass down the river. He then took the live horse and swam down the river perhaps 300 yards to a point where the bank of the river was clear of brush and low enough to get the animal ashore. In the meantime, my brother, who was an excellent swimmer, had rescued the sacks of mail and brought them to our home. When postmaster James O’Neil heard of the accident, he came over there with the keys, opened the mail sacks and dried the contents in the oven over our kitchen stove. In the meantime the rig was gotten out of the river and taken across the bridge by hand. Another horse was brought from our place, and the broken parts mended, and everything was ready to finish the trip to Walker’s Prairie.

. [Another incident occurred] in the summer of 1882, while we were operating a daily stage from Spokane to Colville. Mr. Monaghan had exchanged three large mules . for nine head of horses. The animals were corralled at Wild Goose Bill’s place, where the town of Wilbur now is. Six of them were sold for cavalry horses to the U.S. government to be used at the garrison at Walla Walla. But the other three proved to be outlaws and could not be used for the same purpose, so they were sent to the Monaghan ranch at Chewelah [for my brothers and me to work with them.] We got them quiet enough to drive them on the stage, but had not had the time to break them to ride.

The arrangement of the daily stage was to bring all the passengers in [the mail stage] over the Cottonwood Road. This left the mail for the Walker’s Prairie and Deep Creek post offices to be continued as usual three times a week. There was not much mail to be carried over that route, so it was carried on horseback. . On one occasion it was found that one small sack of first class mail had been overlooked in the post office at Spokane. This, of course, was an awful breach of regulations. When it was called to my brother Jim’s attention, he undertook to remedy the mistake by taking the mail to Chewelah on horseback over the Cotton Road. But on reaching our first stage station at Peavine Jimmie’s place on the Little Spokane, he found there was nothing to ride but one of the unbroken outlaw horses.

It so happened that L. W. Meyers was there at the time with a load of freight for his own store that he operated at his home near the Colville mission. . Telling his troubles to Mr. Meyers, who himself was a splendid horseman and a great lover of horses, he assisted Jim to get the animal saddled and the sack of mail tied behind the saddle. But from the caper that the outlaw horse was cutting up, it was decided to lead the animal across the bridge spanning the Little Spokane River before mounting him, because of the fact that the land there was level and [there were] no fences or other obstructions to contend with except a stand of open timber. For a time, Mr. Meyers enjoyed the sight of a real bucking match, with horse and rider each striving for mastery. The animal finally plunged between two trees literally tearing both rider and saddle off. In spite of the shock he sustained, [Jim] held onto the lariat, so the horse did not get away from him. Mr. Meyers tried to persuade [him] to let the whole thing go to the devil, but the boy had his Irish up and would not be dissuaded, so the whole performance was gone through again.

This time the rider had proved the master, and the outlaw was ridden to Chewelah that day, and from there to Spokane by way of Walker’s Prairie and Deep Creek. On the return trip, needless to say, that horse was broken before he reached Spokane again. Mr. Meyers never forgot that incident, and when we realized there was not a single settler to be met with between the Little Spokane and the Joe Morrrell ranch near Chewelah, except our stage station three miles east of Loon Lake, it was a strenuous job for anyone to undertake.

Part 2: Farming and ranching in the Colville Valley, freighting on the Colville Road.

. Let us remember that even at that early day, that part of the Colville Valley now known as Chewelah was on the map. That point was a natural stopping place for all travelers, where they could be sure of finding all accommodations necessary to make traveling as comfortable as could be expected. If some of the people of today [1928, during the agricultural depression of the 1920s that preceded the Great Depression of the 1930s] think it impossible to eke out any existence at the time of which I write, I wonder what they would have done had they come into the valley of the Colville when those old settlers did. For instance, John Inkster came to this valley in 1848, Thomas Brown in 1854, Guy Haines in 1859, Peter King in 1851. Many others came into the Colville Valley in the early ‘60s and resided here until their deaths. How did they make a living for themselves and their families? . They were all engaged in farming, producing an abundance of all farm crops, hay, oats, wheat potatoes and other vegetables . [as well as large bands of cattle, horses, sheep, and sometimes hogs].

. In those days every settler, as well as most of the Indians, raised a great number of horses. We never thought about feeding them -- except the ones we were using. The other ones ran on the open range, and were taken up when it was necessary to break some of them to work or ride. We were all handy with a lariat in fact it was seldom necessary to throw a second time at the animal you wanted. Every boy caught and broke his own riding horse. The animal was usually ridden bareback for the simple reason that we did not have a saddle to ride.

. On the James Monaghan ranch was a large band of cattle, purchased around Colville during the time he was engaged in the mercantile business there. They were driven to Chewelah every fall and fed there during the winter. It fell to the lot of my brothers and myself to round up these cattle during the fall of 1879. Usually all range cattle would come from the range into the valley as soon as the weather commenced getting stormy, so the work of gathering them began during the last of December. We started at the John Wynne farm, where the town of Colville is now, picking them up at the different farms on the way. .

Mr. Heller had a large band of cattle. He always fed them in an open timber lot outside of his field, where a branch of Heller Creek ran through his feedlot. It took considerable hard driving to cut the cattle out from his band. In running after a large steer the animal jumped across the creek, but my horse stopped at the edge of the water so suddenly that I went over his head, but fortunately landed on the opposite bank, pretty well shaken up, but no bones broken. . Joe LaPray was probably the largest cattle raiser in the county, grazing a great many of them on the breaks of the Spokane River during the entire year.

. There was always a good market for our livestock. The hogs were used for home consumption, every settler curing his own bacon, and all extra dressed pork found a ready market at the Oppenheimer mill. . The cattle were always in demand, not only in the home market, but buyers from outside points came here to purchase them.

The late D. M. [Daniel] Drumheller of Spokane never missed a year without coming to the Colville Valley and purchasing a large band of cattle. I also remember in the summer of 1881, a young man named Thomas McKenzie came here from Montana and purchased about 700 head of steers and dry cows, at an average price of $14 a head. He drove these cattle over the old Mullan Road through Idaho, and when swimming them across the Coeur d’Alene River, near the old mission, in trying to keep them together, he was drowned in the river at that point. The cattle were held on the range at that point until his sister came and took charge of them.

Again I remember in the summer of 1894, D. M. Drumheller and associates from Wyoming purchased all the cattle available throughout Stevens County. I sold several head to this outfit and helped to deliver them to the shipping point at Spokane. We arrived in Spokane with 1,200 head of cattle just a few days after the strike on the Northern Pacific Railroad. We were unable to ship them, as there was not a wheel turning on that road. We held them on the prairie east of Spokane for three weeks, finally shipping them over the Great Northern road to Miles City [Montana], this being the nearest point at which they could be unloaded and driven to the range where they were to be kept. The average price paid for these cattle was about $22.

There was always a ready market for all grain raised in the valley. The wheat was sold to the Oppenheimer Bros. And delivered to their flourmill on the Little Pend Oreille River. The oats were delivered at the garrison of Fort Colville, being purchased by whomever had the contract to furnish such supplies to the U.S. government at that point. The wheat usually sold for $1 per bushel and oats at 50 cents per bushel. Potatoes also brought 50 cents per bushel to the grower. Hay brought $12 per ton, delivered loose at the garrison, where about 400 tons were consumed. In those days every farmer absolutely owned his livestock and farm products. There were no mortgages on their farms or livestock or crops, so the prices received were their own to do with as they pleased.

The Oppenheimer gristmill was owned by the three Oppenheimer brothers, Samuel, Joseph, and Marcus. Here the greater part of the wheat grown in the Colville Valley was manufactured into flour and other mill products. .

There were two grades of flour made at the mill. Their best brand was known as the XXX and this brand was equal to any manufactured in any part of the Northwest. The flour was shipped as far south as Walla Walla, and also to all the mining camps operating on both sides of the international line on the north. On the mill farm there was produced a large band of hogs, numbering about 200 head. These hogs were fattened, dressed and cured into the finest hams, shoulders and bacon. .

The main road to Fort Colville passed by the mill. So I was a frequent visitor there carrying their mail to and from the post office, as well as any express matter that might be shipped to the mill. The kitchen latchstring was always out, a nice slice of well cooked ham to be found in the cupboard.

. Besides their regular farm operations, every farmer had one or more four-horse teams on the road to haul freight from Walla Walla during the slack season, between the time of planting and harvesting of their crops. The prices paid for such hauling during the summer months was about 3 cents per pound. This brought to the team owner a nice sum of money on the side. The cost of the trip was small, as there was plenty of bunch grass to be found at all points along the road. There was very little grain fed on these trips, and it usually took 12 days to make the round trip. Of course the trip was not pleasant during the early spring months, when the roads were soft. In fact, I have seen the road through the Chewelah valley so bad that it took four good horses to pull an empty wagon through it. During this time it was necessary to [use Cottonwood Road rather than the main road for this portion of the trip].

Freighting during the late fall was not very pleasant, as it was no unusual thing to get caught in a snowstorm. I remember one such instance, when John Morrell got caught in a storm. He unhitched his four-horse team and tied them to the wagon to wait until the storm had passed. Taking his blankets, he got under the wagon for shelter, but during the night the horses broke loose and drifted with the storm with their harness on them. One of the horses was a bay stallion owned by his father. Not being able to get any trace horses, he struck out on foot and reached Lyons Ferry on the Snake River. When spring opened up only one of the horses could be found, that was the stallion, and he had lost all his harness but the collar, which was still on his neck.

. [I always remember] the homestead of Antoine Gendron, a former employee of the Hudson’s Bay Company, [who came to] the post about 1846. He was married to a native [Indian] woman. They were the parents of a large family. . Besides the regular farm crops, there was also raised a large band of both cattle and horses. The latchstring was always out at the Antoine Gendron home, as it was with all the old pioneers. The honesty of the settlers was never questioned in those days. Let me illustrate a few incidents in proof of this. During the time James Monaghan was in the mercantile business at old Colville he carried charge accounts, as was the custom of the period. Some years after closing his business, in looking over his old accounts, he found some of his old customers still indebted to him. Apparently he had never sent them a statement of how their accounts stood. So, during the winter of 1884, he sent a memorandum of a few of those whose names appeared on his books, asking me to see what I could do about collecting them.

The first one I approached was Mr. Gendron, who not only acknowledged the indebtedness, but also offered to deliver two tons of oats at the Monaghan ranch at Chewelah in payment of the account. I also visited Michael La Fleur on the same mission. He took me out to his horse corral and told me to pick out any horse there and give him a receipted bill, which I did. I picked out a beautiful sorrel mare, and while I was in the house writing the receipt, his boys roped the animal and helped me take her to the Chewelah ranch.

Another thing that would also illustrate the honesty of the community of those days is worth telling here. During such times as Mr. Monaghan was away from his place of business, Antoine Paradis was placed in charge of the store. When the day’s business was over, Mr. Paradis pocketed the day’s receipts and returned to his home on the west side of the Colville Valley several miles distant, always making the trip on horseback, with no thought of ever meeting a holdup man.

Part 3: Memories of Indians

. That winter, ’78-’79, I was a pupil at the Catholic Sisters’ school at the Colville Mission, now Ward. This was an Indian school with about 250 children -- all Indians and half breeds except Miss Lizzie Labrie and my sister Mary Ann -- the only white girls, and myself -- the only white boy. . I will never forget one occasion when, with an Indian boy named Edward, I played hooky from school. We roamed over the hills east of the mission. When hunger overtook us I wanted to return to school. But hunger had no terror for the Indian boy. He made out a good dinner by eating the stalks of the wild sunflowers that grew luxuriantly all over the hills. [This was probably balsamroot, which the Indians of the Northwest used as a survival food.] However, when evening came, we returned to school and took our punishment, which was going to bed without any supper.

. [In the Colville Valley, Indians and whites] did plenty of hunting, fishing, horseracing, also foot racing. I do not think any people love a horserace more than the Indians did, and they would bet the last thing they had on their favorite horse. With them it was strictly a question of the best horse winning. There was no trickery of any kind. If a race was not satisfactory, they would insist it would be run over again until it was satisfactorily settled.

I will illustrate this to show their inherent honesty. The rider [myself] with his own horse was matched against an Indian horse and the rider in a three-mile race . Just north of the present magnesite plant [at Chewelah], for the first two miles it was nip and tuck between the two horses, but toward the finish the Indian boy left me so far behind that there was no question as to who had the best horse. But unfortunately the Indian boy did not ride through the gate. I took advantage of his mistake and rode through the gate, of course winning the race. However, it was decided that the other fellow had the best horse. So all bets were paid to the Indian without any kick from anyone.

While the Indians were horseracing every day during the week, it was only on Sunday afternoon that the settlers had time to indulge in the sport. On one occasion, after an afternoon of this sport, we boys had a bay stallion that had cleaned up everything that was pitted against him. We put him in the barn for the night, but on Monday morning he was nowhere to be found. After more than a month had elapsed, the horse was found in the barn, he had been returned as quietly as he had been taken away. It transpired that the Indians had taken him . [to] use for breeding purposes. He was returned in good condition, so no questions were ever asked. This was the only thing that ever occurred between us and the Indians that might be considered unfriendly. We used to employ the Indians during the haying and harvesting season, and most of them were good workers.

Whatever failings the Indians or half-breeds might have, dishonesty was not one of them. It often happened that a freighter would break down his wagon or have some other trouble that would compel him to leave his wagon and load of freight on the road for a considerable length of time, but I have never heard of a single instance where any article on the wagon was stolen. We never thought of locking a door. The latchstring was always out. Someone might come in, eat a lunch, but nothing was ever stolen.

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James Monaghan family, ca. 1893

Courtesy Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture

Oppenheimer Mill on the Little Pend Oreille River, ca. 1880


History of the Graham Family

The treatment and torture dealt out to these pious religious people, who held tenaciously to the principles of the Presbyterian faith, by the [2] church of England, under the false cloak of religion, would of itself fill a volume much larger than that contemplated in these pages, and reference is merely made to show the stern and unwavering character of a people who were driven from post to pillar, and suffered almost unendurable hardships and degradations, rather than depart from a principle which they believed to be the teachings of the Bible, as well as having the approval of their conscience. Thus, more than two centuries ago our ancestral parents left their beautiful homes in their native land, and looking for the last time on the green sloping swords of the Grampian Hills and bid farewell forever to the graves of their fathers and mothers, and left behind all that was near and dear to them, even as their own lovely Scotland, and took up their march for the Emerald Isle, in the vain hope that the persecutions and trials which had hitherto made life hideous, would cease and they would be free to exercise their faith[,] which had so long been the desire of their conscience. [3] But alas! for human expectations. Their sojourn is but for a while, until the broad and inviting land across the Atlantic bade them once more take up their line of march and plant their homes in the New World, where they would be free to worship God according to the dictates of their own conscience, unhindered by church or state. Among the many families who thus emigrated from Scotland to Ireland and later from Ireland to America, we might mention the following names: Forbesses, Stuarts, Hamiltons, Montgomerys, Alexanders, Grahams, Shaws, Moores, Lewises, Pattons, Mathews, Prestons, Baxtons, Lyles, Grigsbys, Crawfords, Comminses, Browns, Wallaces, Wilsons, Caruthers, Campbells, McClungs, McCues, McKees, McCowns, Lockridges, Boyds, Barclays, McDonals and Baileys, described as, “knights and gentlemen of Scotland, whose prosperity holds good to this day.” They were Irish Presbyterians, who, being of Scotch extraction, were called Scotch-Irish.

[4] These names are to-day familiar house-hold words of the names of our own land and are but a repetition, and of the same lineal descent of their noble ancestors, who, more than two centuries ago stood ever firm to the Magna Charta of Scottish rights, and rallied under their brave banners, emblazoned with the faith of their own creed, in the famous golden letters, “For Christ’s Crown and Covenant,” they waited undaunted, the tyranny of their foes.

As we have said, their sojourn in Ireland was but temporary, as to a large proportion of those who emigrated there. Of course, many hindered by poverty and other causes no doubt, made that their permanent home.

The relief which they sought, they found but temporary in their new found homes in Ireland. Under the rule of tyrant kings, their suffering and punishment was endurable only for its contrasts with their former suffering. Tithes and taxes demanded from their wrecked estates to support a church, not of their own choice restrained [5] from speaking their own opinions living in a strange land dwelling among enemies of their faith, all combined to make them an unhappy and restless people. Longing for new homes, the silent whispers came across the ocean that the Mayflower, years before had landed others, persecuted like themselves, safely on the other side of the blue waters. This gave them hope. “For thou, O, God, hast proved us, and thou hast tried us as silver is tried thou broughtest us into the net thou layest afflictions upon our loins thou hast caused men to ride over our heads we went through fire and through water but though broughtest us out into a wealth place.” Gathering together what little worldly goods they possessed, which was very meagre, and often nothing, save their Bible. They embarked for the New World, landing upon the banks of the Deleware, [sic] and many rested for a season in the land of Pennsylvania.

William Penn, having been formerly a subject of the King of England, and witnessed the perse- [6] cution of his own church (though he himself was a favorite of King James) it was but natural that these people should seek out in the New World, those that had been persecuted for conscience sake in the old world.

Among those who sought fresh relief and new homes amid the untrodden forests of America, few stood higher or occupied positions more exalted than the Grahams. During that bloody, treacherous, and ever memorable struggle in England, Ireland and Scotland, in which King James was dethroned, and William, Price of Orange, a presbyterian, became his successor — a time when no man could remain neutral, but, all must declare, either for the time honored established church of England the papistry of King James or for that faith which they believed to be taught in Holy Writ. According to the dictates of their own conscience, the Grahams occupied prominent positions on either side.

One Richard Graham, known as Viscount Preston, held the position of Secretary of State of [7] Scotland, under King James, about the year 1685 and history tells us that he was one [of] the privy council, and most trusty advisers of the king that his plans and recommendations were often adhered to, rather than those of the king himself. As a leader of the House of Commons, he counseled King James to reassemble the Houses of Parliament, in order to secure a peaceful settlement of differences between church and state. He was also made Lord Lieutenant for both the counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland, a position very rare and remarkable for one man to occupy.

During the absence of King James from the throne, who, on account of his fear of opposers, had fled to Salisbury, Richard Graham and four associates were appointed a committee, known as the Council of Five, to transact the business of the Throne until such time as might be deemed expedient for the king to return.

The positions of high honor and trust, held and occupied by this one man were many, and to rehearse [8] them all in detail, would require more space than it is our purpose here to consume in this brief sketch suffice it to say that he seems to have been a leader of his party in both civic and military affairs a minister at the courts of foreign countries honored, trusted and adhered to, and we might add, obeyed by kings feared and esteemed by the House of Commons, and held in the highest respect by the common people. While he was true and devoted to King James, in the sense of patriotism, it does not appear that he was a persecutor of those who differed from the king’s religious views.

James Graham, of Claverhouse, viscount of Dundee, was also a noted character in that eventful struggle, and while his persecution of those who differed from the religious persuasions of King James, must ever be deplored, we take consolation in the fact that he but carried out the dictates and decrees of his Master. That his fidelity to the king was ever true through life, and even in the hour of death, is fully substantiated [9] in his last utterance, after having spent an eventful life in the king’s cause.

After King James had vacated the throne, and William and Mary had been triumphantly crowned, and the armies of James abandoned and scattered, General Graham, with his indomitable will and ever-to-be admired energy, hoping against hope, collected together such as he could of the remaining fragmentary army of his escaped master and repaired to the Highlands of Scotland, where he succeeded in interesting the Scottish Chiefs of those Highland Clans, in behalf of the cause of the late king. The remoteness of these semi-barbarians from the active scene of war, coupled with their disinclination to inform themselves of the nature of the conflict, soon led them through the fluency of Graham’s speech to espouse his cause. Having sought and obtained the sympathy of all the principal chiefs of the various clans, he assembled them together and a council was held to decide the mode of warfare. The detached fragmentary of the army whom [10] Graham hitherto commanded, chagrined with former defeats, protested against a battle with those who espoused the cause of King William. While the leaders of the Highland Clans urged immediate assault, saying their men were ready and eager for the fray.

General Graham was influenced by the counsel of the Highlanders, assuring them that he would lead them to victory that he himself would march in front of his army to this, his subordinate officers objected, saying, he was too valuable a leader to expose his person in front of the battle, and urged him to remain in the rear and dictate the movements of his army in the on-coming conflict. To this Graham replied, “your people are accustomed to seeing their leader in the van of battle, and there I shall be seen this day, but after the decision of this day, I shall be more careful of my person and not expose myself in action as heretofore has been my custom.” After that statement, his army was commanded to move forward, himself being in the lead. [11]

Soon the foe was met and the battle of Killikrankie was fought. Early in the engagement Graham was shot, having raised his hand above his head and standing erect in his stirrups, giving command, his shield or armour raised above his waistband, exposing his person, when the ball took effect, he fell from his horse and one of his subordinate officers coming up to him, inquired if his injuries were fatal, Graham answered by saying, “How goes the cause of the king?” The attendant answered, “the cause of the king is well how is your lordship?” Graham replied, “it matters not for me, so the cause of the king is safe.” These were his last words. Though dying on the field, his army won a great victory and the battle of Killikrankie has passed into history, as one of the most memorable events of that time. History hands down to us other names of the Grahams, who were more or less noted in their day and time, of which we might mention, Malcolm Graham, who is last, but by no means least, stood high in society and was [12] bound with a golden chain by King James the II to Ellen Douglass, the girl he loved so well dishonoring thus thy loyal name.

Fetters and warden for the Greame (Graham)
His chain of gold the king unstrung
The links o’er Malcolm’s neck he flung,
Then gently drew the glittering band,
And laid the clasp on Ellen’s hand.

SCOTT’S LADY OF THE LAKE.From the above selection it will be noticed that the name is spelled Greame. Whether the author drew upon his poetical license for this misnomer or whether the name was sometimes so spelled by the Scotts, we are unable to determine.

In the early settlement of this country, when people paid but little attention to the orthography of names — the name was often spelled Grimes. There seems, however, to have been no authority whatever for this contortion of the name.

The only excuse that might be offered for this misapplication of the name is that the names of the early settlers were scarcely, if ever, seen in print and but seldom in writing, but were handed [13] orally from one to another, thus giving plenty of opportunity for misunderstandings. We can recall many names, which in our youth were pronounced differently from what they now are. To illustrate, the name Stevenson was called “Stinson” the name Withrow was called “Watherow” Stodghill was called “Stargeon” and so on. We even find in this day a few of the old-styled fathers and mothers who do not like to discontinue the old-fashioned way of expressing these names.

The Graham name in all English history and in the history of our country, as well as in all the legal writings pertaining to the family, from the earliest settlement in America down to the present time, is spelled as we now have it — Graham.

The people of Scotland of the same family tree were known as clans and these clans seem to have been bound together by very strong and endearing ties.

Such were the adhesion of these family clans that they kept themselves almost entirely aloof [14] from other clans marriage and intermarriage by members of one clan to another was scarcely admissible. If a member of one clan provoked or insulted a member of another clan, the insult was resented by the clan whose member had been insulted thus we find arose many of the clan feuds, with which Scottish history so much abounds.

Each clan had its official head chief or leader, whose duty it was to dictate to his people such a course as seemed to him most wise and discreet or that happened to please the whims of his own fancies. In military affairs this leader or chief was expected to occupy the most dangerous positions and to perform the most daring of the exploits in the heat of battle. He must either win a victory, in which he performed some noble part, or die in defeat.

The Graham clan was a very large and influential one, and, perhaps, at the time of its greatest power, had for its official head James Graham, the Earl of Montrose, who laid down his life for love to his king.

[15] It is claimed in Scottish history that the Graham family dates back for a thousand years, and has been conspicuous in the annal of their country, “from hovel to the palace, in arts, in eloquence and in song”. “It was a daring man by the name of Graham that first broke through the walls of Agricola which the Roman general had built between the firths of the Clyde and Forth to keep off the incursions of the Northern Britons, and the ruins of which, still visible, are called to this day the ruins of Graham’s Dyke”.

From Scotland to Virginia

The first immigration of the Grahams to this country, of which we have any account, occurred about the year 1720 to 1730, the exact date of which cannot now be known.

It is, however, a matter of history that one Michael Graham settled in Paxtong Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, about the date referred to and that he was a direct descendant of the Earl of Montrose, who was beheaded. The descendants of Michael Graham afterwards settled in the Valley of Virginia and became noted [16] for their scholarly attainments, as well as their religious zeal.

Of these, however, we may speak further on. It is known that at or near the same period of the coming of Michael to this country other members of the same family, kith and kin, also settled in this country, among whom were John Graham (the writer’s great grandfather), who settled for a time, it is believed, in Pennsylvania and later moved to the Great Calf Pasture River in Augusta county, Virginia. It is to be regretted that we cannot give the exact date of the settlement on the Calf Pasture River, but conclude that not earlier than the year 1740, nor later than 1745.

We find that he purchased a tract of six hundred and ninety-six acres of land in the year 1746, from John Lewis and James Patton. It will be remembered that John Lewis was the first settler in Augusta county, or rather in the territory which afterwards became Augusta, having planted his home in the then remote wilderness in the [17] year 1732, at Belle Fontaine Springs near Staunton. He was the father of General Andrew Lewis who commanded in the famous battle of Point Pleasant in 1774. John Graham (whom we will call senior) reared a family of four sons and five daughters on the banks of the Calf Pasture and died there about the year 1771, born about the year 1700. His oldest son’s name was Lanty (Lancelot). The names of the other three were John, James and Robert. His daughters’ names were Jane, Elizabeth, Anne, Rebecca and Florence, who was the writer’s grandmother on his mother’s side, she having married James Graham (her cousin).


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